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Fatigue in military aviation: an overview of US military-approved pharmacological countermeasures.
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2005 Jul; 76(7 Suppl):C39-51.AS

Abstract

Uncomfortable working and sleeping environments, high operational tempos, sustained operations, and insufficient staffing make fatigue a growing concern. In aviation, where a single mistake can cost millions of dollars, it is essential to optimize operator alertness. Although behavioral and administrative fatigue countermeasures should comprise the "first line" approach for sustaining aircrew performance, pharmacological fatigue countermeasures are often required. Various components of the U.S. military have authorized the use of specific compounds for this purpose. Hypnotics such as temazepam, zolpidem, or zaleplon can mitigate the fatigue associated with insufficient or disturbed sleep. Alertness-enhancing compounds such as caffeine, modafinil, or dextroamphetamine can temporarily bridge the gap between widely spaced sleep periods. Each of these medications has a role in sustaining the safety and effectiveness of military aircrews. The present paper provides a short overview of these compounds as well as factors to be considered before choosing one or more to help manage fatigue.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Biosciences and Protection Division, United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Brooks City-Base, TX 78235, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16018329

Citation

Caldwell, John A., and J Lynn Caldwell. "Fatigue in Military Aviation: an Overview of US Military-approved Pharmacological Countermeasures." Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, vol. 76, no. 7 Suppl, 2005, pp. C39-51.
Caldwell JA, Caldwell JL. Fatigue in military aviation: an overview of US military-approved pharmacological countermeasures. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2005;76(7 Suppl):C39-51.
Caldwell, J. A., & Caldwell, J. L. (2005). Fatigue in military aviation: an overview of US military-approved pharmacological countermeasures. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 76(7 Suppl), C39-51.
Caldwell JA, Caldwell JL. Fatigue in Military Aviation: an Overview of US Military-approved Pharmacological Countermeasures. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2005;76(7 Suppl):C39-51. PubMed PMID: 16018329.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fatigue in military aviation: an overview of US military-approved pharmacological countermeasures. AU - Caldwell,John A, AU - Caldwell,J Lynn, PY - 2005/7/16/pubmed PY - 2005/10/12/medline PY - 2005/7/16/entrez SP - C39 EP - 51 JF - Aviation, space, and environmental medicine JO - Aviat Space Environ Med VL - 76 IS - 7 Suppl N2 - Uncomfortable working and sleeping environments, high operational tempos, sustained operations, and insufficient staffing make fatigue a growing concern. In aviation, where a single mistake can cost millions of dollars, it is essential to optimize operator alertness. Although behavioral and administrative fatigue countermeasures should comprise the "first line" approach for sustaining aircrew performance, pharmacological fatigue countermeasures are often required. Various components of the U.S. military have authorized the use of specific compounds for this purpose. Hypnotics such as temazepam, zolpidem, or zaleplon can mitigate the fatigue associated with insufficient or disturbed sleep. Alertness-enhancing compounds such as caffeine, modafinil, or dextroamphetamine can temporarily bridge the gap between widely spaced sleep periods. Each of these medications has a role in sustaining the safety and effectiveness of military aircrews. The present paper provides a short overview of these compounds as well as factors to be considered before choosing one or more to help manage fatigue. SN - 0095-6562 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16018329/Fatigue_in_military_aviation:_an_overview_of_US_military_approved_pharmacological_countermeasures_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/fatigue.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -