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Cross-species analysis of the mammalian beta-defensin gene family: presence of syntenic gene clusters and preferential expression in the male reproductive tract.
Physiol Genomics 2005; 23(1):5-17PG

Abstract

Mammalian beta-defensins are an important family of innate host defense peptides with pleiotropic activities. As a first step to study the evolutionary relationship and biological role of the beta-defensin family, we identified their complete repertoires in the human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, and dog following systemic, genome-wide computational searches. Although most beta-defensin genes are composed of two exons separated by an intron of variable length, some contain an additional one or two exons encoding an internal pro-sequence, a segment of carboxy-terminal mature sequences or untranslated regions. Alternatively, spliced isoforms have also been found with several beta-defensins. Furthermore, all beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions, with each cluster spanning <1.2 Mb across the five species. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that, although the majority of beta-defensins are evolutionarily conserved across species, subgroups of gene lineages exist that are specific in certain species, implying that some beta-defensins originated after divergence of these mammals from each other, while most others arose before the last common ancestor of mammals. Surprisingly, RT-PCR revealed that all but one rat beta-defensin transcript are preferentially expressed in the male reproductive tract, particularly in epididymis and testis, except that Defb4, a human beta-defensin-2 ortholog, is more restricted to the respiratory and upper gastrointestinal tracts. Moreover, most beta-defensins expressed in the reproductive tract are developmentally regulated, with enhanced expression during sexual maturation. Existence of such a vast array of beta-defensins in the male reproductive tract suggests that these genes may play a dual role in both fertility and host defense.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Animal Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16033865

Citation

Patil, Amar A., et al. "Cross-species Analysis of the Mammalian Beta-defensin Gene Family: Presence of Syntenic Gene Clusters and Preferential Expression in the Male Reproductive Tract." Physiological Genomics, vol. 23, no. 1, 2005, pp. 5-17.
Patil AA, Cai Y, Sang Y, et al. Cross-species analysis of the mammalian beta-defensin gene family: presence of syntenic gene clusters and preferential expression in the male reproductive tract. Physiol Genomics. 2005;23(1):5-17.
Patil, A. A., Cai, Y., Sang, Y., Blecha, F., & Zhang, G. (2005). Cross-species analysis of the mammalian beta-defensin gene family: presence of syntenic gene clusters and preferential expression in the male reproductive tract. Physiological Genomics, 23(1), pp. 5-17.
Patil AA, et al. Cross-species Analysis of the Mammalian Beta-defensin Gene Family: Presence of Syntenic Gene Clusters and Preferential Expression in the Male Reproductive Tract. Physiol Genomics. 2005 Sep 21;23(1):5-17. PubMed PMID: 16033865.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cross-species analysis of the mammalian beta-defensin gene family: presence of syntenic gene clusters and preferential expression in the male reproductive tract. AU - Patil,Amar A, AU - Cai,Yibin, AU - Sang,Yongming, AU - Blecha,Frank, AU - Zhang,Guolong, Y1 - 2005/07/20/ PY - 2005/7/22/pubmed PY - 2006/5/26/medline PY - 2005/7/22/entrez SP - 5 EP - 17 JF - Physiological genomics JO - Physiol. Genomics VL - 23 IS - 1 N2 - Mammalian beta-defensins are an important family of innate host defense peptides with pleiotropic activities. As a first step to study the evolutionary relationship and biological role of the beta-defensin family, we identified their complete repertoires in the human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, and dog following systemic, genome-wide computational searches. Although most beta-defensin genes are composed of two exons separated by an intron of variable length, some contain an additional one or two exons encoding an internal pro-sequence, a segment of carboxy-terminal mature sequences or untranslated regions. Alternatively, spliced isoforms have also been found with several beta-defensins. Furthermore, all beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions, with each cluster spanning <1.2 Mb across the five species. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that, although the majority of beta-defensins are evolutionarily conserved across species, subgroups of gene lineages exist that are specific in certain species, implying that some beta-defensins originated after divergence of these mammals from each other, while most others arose before the last common ancestor of mammals. Surprisingly, RT-PCR revealed that all but one rat beta-defensin transcript are preferentially expressed in the male reproductive tract, particularly in epididymis and testis, except that Defb4, a human beta-defensin-2 ortholog, is more restricted to the respiratory and upper gastrointestinal tracts. Moreover, most beta-defensins expressed in the reproductive tract are developmentally regulated, with enhanced expression during sexual maturation. Existence of such a vast array of beta-defensins in the male reproductive tract suggests that these genes may play a dual role in both fertility and host defense. SN - 1531-2267 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16033865/Cross_species_analysis_of_the_mammalian_beta_defensin_gene_family:_presence_of_syntenic_gene_clusters_and_preferential_expression_in_the_male_reproductive_tract_ L2 - http://www.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00104.2005?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -