Acute and chronic effects of cigarette smoking on arterial stiffness.Blood Press. 2005; 14(2):80-5.BP
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an indicator of arterial stiffness, especially in the aorta, and a marker for vascular damage. Smoking is reported to increase arterial stiffness. We examined the acute and chronic effects of smoking on arterial stiffness by measuring brachial--ankle PWV (baPWV) using an oscillometric method (VP 1000, Colin Co., Komaki, Japan).
All healthy male subjects (chronic smokers, n=40, 30.3 years old vs non-smokers, n=40, 28.3 years old) smoked two cigarettes (nicotine 1.5 mg) within 10 min and measured blood pressure (BP), heart rate and baPWV at baseline, 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and compared with controls (n=20, 29.3 years old).
Systolic BP was higher in chronic smokers than non-smokers or controls. Smoking increased the systolic and diastolic BP and heart rate significantly at 5 min in both chronic smokers and non-smokers as compared with baseline levels or controls (respectively, p<0.001) and returned to baseline level at 15 min. Pulse pressure did not increase significantly. baPWV increased significantly in both chronic smokers and non-smokers at 5 min (12.1--17.3 m/s vs 11.1--12.7 m/sec, respectively) and remained higher for 30 min compared with controls (p<0.001). Smoking increased baPWV to a greater extent in chronic smokers than in non-smokers (p<0.01).
Acutely, cigarette smoking increased BP, heart rate and baPWV in chronic smokers and non-smokers. These effects were more prominent in chronic smokers than in non-smokers. These findings suggest that cigarette smoking have deleterious effects on cardiovascular system by stiffening arteries.