Evolutionary history of freshwater sculpins, genus Cottus (Teleostei; Cottidae) and related taxa, as inferred from mitochondrial DNA phylogeny.Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005 Sep; 36(3):654-68.MP
The freshwater sculpins, genus Cottus (Teleostei; Cottidae), comprise bottom-dwelling fishes that exhibit various life-history styles, having radiated throughout Northern Hemisphere freshwater habitats. The phylogenetic relationships among Cottus and related taxa were estimated from mitochondrial DNA 12S rRNA and control region (CR) sequences, the freshwater sculpins examined falling into five lineages (A-E). Lineage A consisted of Trachidermus fasciatus and C. kazika, both having a catadromous life-history. The remaining species (lineages B-E) spawn in freshwater habitats regardless of life-history (amphidromous, lacustrine or fluvial), suggesting that the various life-history types post-dated a common ancestor of lineages B-E. Molecular clock estimates suggested a Pliocene-Pleistocene radiation (or Miocene-Pliocene from the alternative clock) of lineages B-E. In eastern Eurasia, speciation with life-history changes to amphidromous or fluvial styles has apparently occurred independently in some lineages, as a general pattern. Mitochondrial DNA CR phylogeny showed the monophyletic Baikalian cottoids (Cottoidei) to be nested within Cottus and Trachidermus, suggesting that the former ecologically and morphologically divergent cottoids may have originated from a single lineage which invaded the ancient lake.