Determination of single particle mass spectral signatures from light-duty vehicle emissions.Environ Sci Technol 2005; 39(12):4569-80ES
In this study, 28 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDV) were operated on a chassis dynamometer at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Facility in El Monte, CA. The mass spectra of individual particles emitted from these vehicles were measured using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS). A primary goal of this study involves determining representative size-resolved single particle mass spectral signatures that can be used in future ambient particulate matter source apportionment studies. Different cycles were used to simulate urban driving conditions including the federal testing procedure (FTP), unified cycle (UC), and the correction cycle (CC). The vehicles were selected to span a range of catalytic converter (three-way, oxidation, and no catalysts) and engine technologies (vehicles models from 1953 to 2003). Exhaust particles were sampled directly from a dilution and residence chamber system using particle sizing instruments and an ATOFMS equipped with an aerodynamic lens (UF-ATOFMS) analyzing particles between 50 and 300 nm. On the basis of chemical composition, 10 unique chemical types describe the majority of the particles with distinct size and temporal characteristics. In the ultrafine size range (between 50 and 100 nm), three elemental carbon (EC) particle types dominated, all showing distinct EC signatures combined with Ca, phosphate, sulfate, and a lower abundance of organic carbon (OC). The relative fraction of EC particle types decreased as particle size increased with OC particles becoming more prevalent above 100 nm. Depending on the vehicle and cycle, several distinct OC particle types produced distinct ion patterns, including substituted aromatic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), coupled with other chemical species including ammonium, EC, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, V, and Ca. The most likely source of the Ca and phosphate in the particles is attributed to the lubricating oil. Significant variability was observed in the chemical composition of particles emitted within the different car categories as well as for the same car operating under different driving conditions. Two-minute temporal resolution measurements provide information on the chemical classes as they evolved during the FTP cycle. The first two minutes of the cold start produced more than 5 times the number of particles than any other portion of the cycle, with one class of ultrafine particles (EC coupled with Ca, OC, and phosphate) preferentially produced. By number, the three EC with Ca classes (which also contained OC, phosphate, and sulfate) were the most abundant classes produced by the nonsmoking vehicles. The smoker category produced the highest number of particles, with the dominant classes being OC comprised of substituted monoaromatic compounds and PAHs, coupled with Ca and phosphate, thus suggesting used lubricating oil was associated with many of these particles. These studies show, by number, EC particles dominate gasoline emissions in the ultrafine size range particularlyforthe lowest emitting newer vehicles, suggesting the EC signature alone cannot be used as a unique tracer for diesels. This represents the first report of high time- and size-resolved chemical composition data showing the mixing state of nonrefractory elements in particles such as EC for vehicle emissions during dynamometer source testing.