Subcutaneous microdialysis before and after an oral glucose tolerance test: a method to determine insulin resistance in the subcutaneous adipose tissue in diabetes mellitus.Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 Sep; 7(5):525-35.DO
Subcutaneous microdialysis has been used for continuous glucose monitoring in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) to facilitate tight regulation of blood glucose levels. The aims of this study were therefore to investigate (i) the relationship between capillary and interstitial glucose in patients with type 1 or 2 DM and healthy subjects and (ii) the feasibility of using microdialysis to assess local insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue.
Using subcutaneous microdialysis, interstitial glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol were determined as measures of glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, before and after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 14 patients and seven controls. The results were correlated to whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin sensitivity in liver estimated from the levels of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1).
Capillary and interstitial glucose correlated before and after OGTT in healthy subjects and in type 1 DM but not in type 2 DM. In fasting state, the glycerol levels were higher in both type 1 and type 2 DM compared with controls. After the OGTT, the insulin levels were sufficient to suppress lipolysis in type 1 but not in type 2 DM. The glucose/lactate ratio was higher at fasting in type 1 DM and after OGTT in type 1 and 2 DM. In type 1 DM, basal interstitial glycerol levels correlated to whole-body glucose utilization. In type 2 DM, correlations were found between the basal glycerol levels and whole-body insulin sensitivity and between glucose/lactate and per cent decrease in IGFBP-1 levels 120 min after OGTT.
Capillary and interstitial glucose correlated before and after OGTT in healthy subjects and patients with type 1 DM. Correlations were also found between insulin sensitivity in whole body and in adipose tissue in both type 1 and type 2 DM and between insulin sensitivity in subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver in type 2 DM. This study shows that microdialysis technique can be used to study in vivo insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue over time and may be useful in the evaluation of, for example, the effects of new drugs on insulin sensitivity.