C-reactive protein in patients with acute coronary syndrome: correlation with diagnosis, myocardial damage, ejection fraction and angiographic findings.Int J Cardiol. 2006 May 10; 109(2):248-56.IJ
C-reactive protein (CRP) plasmatic levels increase in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Correlations between CRP levels, myocardial functional damage and cardiomyocyte lysis remain to be defined.
192 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndromes (64.97 +/- 11.08 mean age, 71.35% male gender) were included in the study; 138 patients (71.87%) were discharged with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) diagnosis (28 with non Q-wave AMI) and 54 with an unstable angina (UA) diagnosis (28.13%). In all patients CRP, CK, LDH, CK-MB and troponin I plasmatic concentrations were evaluated every 6 h for 48 h and every 24 h for the following 2 days from the onset of symptoms. Ejection fraction was estimated by bidimensional echocardiography and extension of myocardial lysis by cardiac enzymes plasmatic release. 92 patients (67 with AMI, 25 with UA) underwent coronary-angiography. Incidence of adverse cardiac events was recorded in a 6 months follow up.
Mean CRP levels in Q-wave MI showed a statistically significant increase in the different blood samples with baseline. Mean CRP levels of the three groups were not statistically different at baseline and after 6, 12, and 18 h. Q-wave AMI CRP levels showed a statistically significant difference as against non Q-wave AMI at 36 (p < 0.05), 48 (p < 0.05) and 72 h (p < 0.05) and UA at 24 (p < 0.01), 30 (p < 0.01), 48 (p < 0.0001), 72 (p = 0.0001) and 96 h (p = 0.0003); non Q-wave AMI CPR levels showed a statistically significant difference as against UA at 48 h (p < 0.01). CRP peak mean levels were significantly different when comparing Q-wave AMI patients with UA patients (8.21 +/- 7.85 vs. 2.75 +/- 3.33 mg/dl, p < 0.001). In patients with Q-wave AMI there was a correlation between CRP peak concentrations and CK (r = 0.264, p = 0.008) and LDH (r = 0.32, p = 0.001), while correlation with CK-MB peak concentrations was not statistically significant (r = 0.196, p = 0.051). In the same patient group, there was also a correlation between CRP plasmatic concentrations and troponin I plasmatic concentrations from the 30th to 96th h after the onset of symptoms (r = 0.38-0.53, p < 0.05). No correlation was found between CRP levels and ejection fraction and angio-coronarography findings (number of stenotic vessels, culprit lesions, ruptured plaques). Peak CRP levels were associated in a 6 months follow up with an increased incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with Q-wave AMI (HR 1.1649, 95% C.I. 1.0197-1.3307, p < 0.05).
CRP plasmatic concentrations showed a different release curve in patients with Q-wave AMI in comparison with patients with non Q-wave AMI and with patients with UA. CRP peak concentrations did not correlate with ejection fraction and angiographic findings, but correlate with incidence of MACE. The increase in CRP levels during Q-wave MI seems to be linked to the extension of myocardial damage rather than pre-existing inflammation.