Protective efficacy in chickens, geese and ducks of an H5N1-inactivated vaccine developed by reverse genetics.Virology. 2005 Oct 10; 341(1):153-62.V
We generated a high-growth H5N1/PR8 virus by plasmid-based reverse genetics. The virulence associated multiple basic amino acids of the HA gene were removed, and the resulting virus is attenuated for chickens and chicken eggs. A formalin-inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine was prepared from this virus. When SPF chickens were inoculated with 0.3 ml of the vaccine, the hemagglutinin-inhibition (HI) antibody became detectable at 1 week post-vaccination (p.v.) and reached a peak of 10log2 at 6 weeks p.v. then slowly declined to 4log2 at 43 weeks p.v. Challenge studies performed at 2, 3 and 43 weeks p.v. indicated that all of the chickens were completely protected from disease signs and death. Ducks and geese were completely protected from highly pathogenic H5N1 virus challenge 3 weeks p.v. The duration of protective immunity in ducks and geese was investigated by detecting the HI antibody of the field vaccinated birds, and the results indicated that 3 doses of the vaccine inoculation in geese could induce a 34 weeks protection, while 2 doses induced more than 52 weeks protection in ducks. We first reported that an oil-emulsion inactivated vaccine derived from a high-growth H5N1 vaccine induced approximately 10 months of protective immunity in chickens and demonstrated that the oil-emulsion inactivated avian influenza vaccine is immunogenic for geese and ducks. These results provide useful information for the application of vaccines to the control of H5N1 avian influenza in poultry, including chickens and domestic waterfowl.