Low pH and Helicobacter pylori increase nuclear factor kappa B binding in gastric epithelial cells: a common pathway for epithelial cell injury?J Cell Biochem. 2005 Oct 15; 96(3):589-98.JC
Helicobacter pylori infection results in peptic ulceration and chronic gastritis through mechanisms which are not fully elucidated. Live H. pylori activate the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB in gastric epithelial cells. Patients may have peptic ulcer disease in the absence of H. pylori infection; therefore other factors contribute to the inflammatory process. Maximal acid output in patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulceration is significantly increased indicating a role for acid in the pathogenesis of mucosal ulceration. The effect of low pH on NF-kappaB activation in gastric epithelial cells has not been studied. Human gastric epithelial cells (AGS) were exposed to a range of pH changes in the presence or absence of H. pylori. NF-kappaB DNA-binding and cytosolic IkappaB-alpha were measured using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and Western blotting. NF-kappaB DNA-binding in gastric epithelial cells dramatically increased when the pH of the culture medium decreased. Increases in NF-kappaB nuclear binding were paralleled by decreasing amounts of cytosolic IkappaB-alpha. These findings were similar but less potent than those observed when cells were exposed to H. pylori. Low pH resulted in enhancement of H. pylori-induced NF-kappaB nuclear binding. DNA binding of NF-kappaB activation secondary to low pH was attenuated by PD98059 but not by SB203580. Similar to H. pylori, low pH potently and independently augments NF-kappaB nuclear binding in AGS cells and such activation appears to be mediated through MEK1-dependant signaling pathways.