Influence of thoracic ramping on whiplash kinematics.Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2005 Dec; 20(10):1019-28.CB
Some experimental whiplash investigations using human volunteers and full-body cadavers reported thoracic ramping, characterized by superior translation and extension rotation of the cervico-thoracic junction. The effect of this phenomenon on cervical spinal kinematics has not been quantitatively determined.
A comprehensively validated computational model exercised in 2.7 m/s rear impact was used to determine effects of superior translation and extension rotation of T1 on cervical segmental kinematics during the retraction phase.
In general, thoracic ramping had a minimal effect on cervical intervertebral kinematics during retraction.
Results of the present study demonstrated that magnitude of thoracic ramping plays a minimal role in the whiplash injury mechanism due to decreased effect on cervical segmental kinematics.