Effect of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in women.Am J Clin Nutr. 1992 Jul; 56(1):77-83.AJ
To determine the effects of dietary fat saturation on plasma lipoproteins, we studied 21 free-living normolipidemic women (13 pre- and 8 postmenopausal) on three consecutive diet periods. During the first 4 wk they consumed a saturated diet rich in palm oil and butter [19% saturated fatty acids (S), 14% monounsaturated fatty acids (M), and 3.5% polyunsaturated fatty acids (P)], followed by 6 wk of a monounsaturated diet rich in olive oil (11% S, 22% M, and 3.6% P), and 6 wk of a polyunsaturated diet rich in sunflower oil (10.7% S, 12.5% M, and 12.8% P). Compared with the diet rich in saturated fatty acids, both diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids had similar lowering effects on total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I were higher in the monounsaturated-rich period than in the polyunsaturated-rich (10.5% and 12.7% respectively, P less than 0.001) and the saturated-rich period (5.3%, and 7.9%, respectively, P less than 0.05). These effects were independent of menopause status. Our data show that at this level of fat intake (36% as calories), a monounsaturated-rich diet results in a less atherogenic lipid profile than either polyunsaturated- or saturated-rich diets.