Porcine preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation: a role for leptin?J Anim Sci. 2005 Sep; 83(9):2066-74.JA
The present study was designed to determine whether porcine leptin can alter the proliferation and differentiation of the porcine preadipocyte. The stromal vascular cell fraction of neonatal pig s.c. adipose tissue was isolated by collagenase digestion, filtration, and subsequent centrifugation. For differentiation studies, cells were seeded on six-well tissue culture plates and proliferated to confluency in 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum (FBS) in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 (DMEM/F12; 50:50). Cultures were differentiated using 2.5% pig serum (vol/vol) and recombinant porcine leptin at concentrations of 0 to 1,000 ng/mL alone or in combination with porcine insulin (100 nM), dexamethasone (1 microM), or IGF-1 (250 ng/mL). After 7 d of lipid filling, cultures were harvested for analysis of sn-glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). The GPDH and LPL activities are measures of preadipocyte differentiation. Data were corrected for protein content of the cultures. For proliferation experiments, 24 h after seeding cells with 10% FBS in DMEM/F12 in 25-cm2 tissue culture flasks, cells were switched to 5% FBS and supplemented with 0 to 1,000 ng of porcine leptin or 1,000 ng of murine leptin. Cell proliferation was measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation in preconfluent cultures over 24 h on d 4 of culture. At confluency, cells were switched to a medium to promote differentiation and lipid filling (2.5% pig serum, 100 nM insulin, 1 microM dexamethasone) for 7 d. Cells were harvested from the flasks and adipocytes were separated from stromal cells by Percoll gradient centrifugation. In a series of experiments, leptin alone or in combination with insulin, dexamethasone, or IGF-I did not affect differentiation as measured by the activity of GPDH and LPL. Leptin at any concentration did not inhibit differentiation induced by insulin, dexamethasone, or IGF-I; however, leptin at 1,000 ng/mL stimulated a 30% increase in preadipocyte proliferation (P = 0.007; n = 6) and a 27% increase in stromal cell proliferation (P < 0.001; n = 6). These results indicate that, at most, porcine leptin may contribute to the recruitment of new adipocytes within the adipose tissue.