Arachidonic acid and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in meat of selected poultry and fish species in relation to dietary fat sources.J Agric Food Chem 2005; 53(17):6804-12JA
Arachidonic acid (AA) content, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) equivalent [LCE; calculated as 0.15 x linolenic acid (LA) + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], and PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio were determined in meat [breast meat (BM), thigh meat (TM), and fillets (F), respectively] within four sets of chickens, five sets of turkeys, one set of common carp, and four sets of rainbow trout, fed either commercial diet or diets with manipulated PUFA n-3 and PUFA n-6 contents. AA content was within the range of 20 mg/100 g (F of rainbow trout fed the diet with linseed oil, LO) to 138 mg/100 g (TM of chickens fed restrictively the diet based on maize to the age of 90 days). AA content in BM of turkeys fed the diet with LO or fish oil (FO) did not differ (P > 0.05) from that of rainbow trout F. LCE was in the range of 16 mg/100 g (BM of turkeys fed a commercial feed mixture) to 681 mg/100 g (F of rainbow trout fed a commercial feed mixture). With regard to BM, only turkeys fed the diet with LO deposited more (P < 0.01) LCE (71 mg/100 g) as compared to all other poultry sets except turkeys fed the diet with FO (123 mg/100 g). Apart from all fish samples, also both BM and TM of turkeys fed the diet with either LO or FO met the recommended value of the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio (<4). AA content in the tissue increased significantly (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary LA in both all chicken tissues and all turkey tissues, which is contrary to the suggested strong metabolic regulation of the AA formation. When all tissues within all animal species were taken as a one set, both AA percentage and EPA + DHA percentage in the tissue (Y, %) decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing fat content in the tissue (X, %), according to the equation Y = 4.7 - 0.54X (R (2) = 0.41) and Y = 6.0 - 0.33X (R (2) = 0.35), respectively. AA content in chicken BM, chicken TM, and turkey BM, respectively, decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing live weight reached at the slaughter age.