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Refractive error in urban and rural adult Chinese in Beijing.
Ophthalmology 2005; 112(10):1676-83O

Abstract

PURPOSE

To evaluate refractive error and its demographic associations in an urban and rural population in northern China.

DESIGN

Epidemiological study.

PARTICIPANTS

The Beijing Eye Study is a population-based cohort study in northern China including 4439 subjects. Excluding pseudophakic and aphakic patients, the present study involved 4319 subjects. It was divided into a rural part (1905 [44.1%] subjects) and an urban part (2414 [55.9%] subjects). Mean age was 55.85+/-10.33 years (range, 40-90).

METHODS

Standardized ophthalmologic examination. For statistical analysis, the spherical equivalent was converted to binary variables, and logistic regression was used to investigate the association with continuous or categorical independent variables.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE

Refractive error.

RESULTS

Mean refractive error measured -0.33+/-2.22 diopters (D) (range, -20.88 to +7.88). Myopia of >-0.50 D, -1.0 D, >-6.0 D, and >-8 D, respectively, occurred in 22.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.7-24.2), 16.9% (95% CI, 15.8-18.0), 2.6% (95% CI, 2.2-3.1), and 1.5% (95% CI, 1.1-1.9) of the subjects, respectively. Myopic refractive error was associated significantly with younger age (P<0.001), urban region (vs. rural region) (P<0.001), higher educational background (P<0.001), higher degree of nuclear cataract (P<0.001), decreasing uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) (P<0.001), decreasing best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (P<0.001), and female gender (P<0.001). Prevalence of high myopia (myopic refractive error >-8 D) was associated with age (P<0.001), female gender (P = 0.020), urban region (P = 0.023), and lower BCVA (P<0.001). Mean anisometropia was 1.09+/-2.03 D (median, 0.38; range, 0-22.0). Prevalence of anisometropia of > or =1 D was associated significantly with age (P<0.001), refractive error (P<0.001), BCVA (P<0.001), and region (P<0.001). Mean astigmatic error measured 0.62+/-0.90 D (median, 0.25; range, 0-7.50). Astigmatism of > or =1 D was associated significantly with age (P<0.001), lower UCVA (P = 0.003), lower BCVA (P<0.001), urban area (P<0.001), and degree of cortical cataract (P = 0.027).

CONCLUSIONS

As in other population-based studies on Chinese, myopia was more prevalent in younger subjects. Myopia was associated with urban region, educational background, female gender, decreasing visual acuity, and nuclear cataract. If longitudinal studies confirm the association of refractive error with age, refractive surgery may achieve emmetropia only for a limited time.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Tongren Hospital, Beijing, China.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16111755

Citation

Xu, Liang, et al. "Refractive Error in Urban and Rural Adult Chinese in Beijing." Ophthalmology, vol. 112, no. 10, 2005, pp. 1676-83.
Xu L, Li J, Cui T, et al. Refractive error in urban and rural adult Chinese in Beijing. Ophthalmology. 2005;112(10):1676-83.
Xu, L., Li, J., Cui, T., Hu, A., Fan, G., Zhang, R., ... Jonas, J. B. (2005). Refractive error in urban and rural adult Chinese in Beijing. Ophthalmology, 112(10), pp. 1676-83.
Xu L, et al. Refractive Error in Urban and Rural Adult Chinese in Beijing. Ophthalmology. 2005;112(10):1676-83. PubMed PMID: 16111755.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Refractive error in urban and rural adult Chinese in Beijing. AU - Xu,Liang, AU - Li,Jianjun, AU - Cui,Tongtong, AU - Hu,Ailian, AU - Fan,Guizhi, AU - Zhang,Rongxiu, AU - Yang,Hua, AU - Sun,Baochen, AU - Jonas,Jost B, PY - 2004/11/23/received PY - 2005/05/18/accepted PY - 2005/8/23/pubmed PY - 2005/10/18/medline PY - 2005/8/23/entrez SP - 1676 EP - 83 JF - Ophthalmology JO - Ophthalmology VL - 112 IS - 10 N2 - PURPOSE: To evaluate refractive error and its demographic associations in an urban and rural population in northern China. DESIGN: Epidemiological study. PARTICIPANTS: The Beijing Eye Study is a population-based cohort study in northern China including 4439 subjects. Excluding pseudophakic and aphakic patients, the present study involved 4319 subjects. It was divided into a rural part (1905 [44.1%] subjects) and an urban part (2414 [55.9%] subjects). Mean age was 55.85+/-10.33 years (range, 40-90). METHODS: Standardized ophthalmologic examination. For statistical analysis, the spherical equivalent was converted to binary variables, and logistic regression was used to investigate the association with continuous or categorical independent variables. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Refractive error. RESULTS: Mean refractive error measured -0.33+/-2.22 diopters (D) (range, -20.88 to +7.88). Myopia of >-0.50 D, -1.0 D, >-6.0 D, and >-8 D, respectively, occurred in 22.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.7-24.2), 16.9% (95% CI, 15.8-18.0), 2.6% (95% CI, 2.2-3.1), and 1.5% (95% CI, 1.1-1.9) of the subjects, respectively. Myopic refractive error was associated significantly with younger age (P<0.001), urban region (vs. rural region) (P<0.001), higher educational background (P<0.001), higher degree of nuclear cataract (P<0.001), decreasing uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) (P<0.001), decreasing best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (P<0.001), and female gender (P<0.001). Prevalence of high myopia (myopic refractive error >-8 D) was associated with age (P<0.001), female gender (P = 0.020), urban region (P = 0.023), and lower BCVA (P<0.001). Mean anisometropia was 1.09+/-2.03 D (median, 0.38; range, 0-22.0). Prevalence of anisometropia of > or =1 D was associated significantly with age (P<0.001), refractive error (P<0.001), BCVA (P<0.001), and region (P<0.001). Mean astigmatic error measured 0.62+/-0.90 D (median, 0.25; range, 0-7.50). Astigmatism of > or =1 D was associated significantly with age (P<0.001), lower UCVA (P = 0.003), lower BCVA (P<0.001), urban area (P<0.001), and degree of cortical cataract (P = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: As in other population-based studies on Chinese, myopia was more prevalent in younger subjects. Myopia was associated with urban region, educational background, female gender, decreasing visual acuity, and nuclear cataract. If longitudinal studies confirm the association of refractive error with age, refractive surgery may achieve emmetropia only for a limited time. SN - 1549-4713 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16111755/Refractive_error_in_urban_and_rural_adult_Chinese_in_Beijing_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0161-6420(05)00804-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -