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Emotion displays in two-year-olds during mishaps.
Child Dev. 1992 Apr; 63(2):314-24.CD

Abstract

Although it has been shown that toddlers express distress when personal or physical events violate their expectations, there has been little detailed examination of their emotional reactions to such events. In this study, 45 2-year-olds were observed during 2 mishaps: a doll breaking and juice spilling. Their emotional reactions and their attempts to fix the mishap were coded. 2 components to their reactions to mishaps were found: one of tension and frustration, and another of concerned reparation. Mishaps elicited more negative emotions in toddlers than free play, and most toddlers attempted to correct the mishap. Children's styles of emotional response to mishaps may be related to maternal mental health. Symptoms of depression and anxiety in mothers were related to a suppression of tension and frustration in their offspring. Maternal acting out symptoms were not related to toddlers' reactions to mishaps. The findings are discussed in terms of the role of emotion in the formation of individual differences in sociomoral functioning and factors contributing to early differences.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

1611936

Citation

Cole, P M., et al. "Emotion Displays in Two-year-olds During Mishaps." Child Development, vol. 63, no. 2, 1992, pp. 314-24.
Cole PM, Barrett KC, Zahn-Waxler C. Emotion displays in two-year-olds during mishaps. Child Dev. 1992;63(2):314-24.
Cole, P. M., Barrett, K. C., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (1992). Emotion displays in two-year-olds during mishaps. Child Development, 63(2), 314-24.
Cole PM, Barrett KC, Zahn-Waxler C. Emotion Displays in Two-year-olds During Mishaps. Child Dev. 1992;63(2):314-24. PubMed PMID: 1611936.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Emotion displays in two-year-olds during mishaps. AU - Cole,P M, AU - Barrett,K C, AU - Zahn-Waxler,C, PY - 1992/4/1/pubmed PY - 1992/4/1/medline PY - 1992/4/1/entrez SP - 314 EP - 24 JF - Child development JO - Child Dev VL - 63 IS - 2 N2 - Although it has been shown that toddlers express distress when personal or physical events violate their expectations, there has been little detailed examination of their emotional reactions to such events. In this study, 45 2-year-olds were observed during 2 mishaps: a doll breaking and juice spilling. Their emotional reactions and their attempts to fix the mishap were coded. 2 components to their reactions to mishaps were found: one of tension and frustration, and another of concerned reparation. Mishaps elicited more negative emotions in toddlers than free play, and most toddlers attempted to correct the mishap. Children's styles of emotional response to mishaps may be related to maternal mental health. Symptoms of depression and anxiety in mothers were related to a suppression of tension and frustration in their offspring. Maternal acting out symptoms were not related to toddlers' reactions to mishaps. The findings are discussed in terms of the role of emotion in the formation of individual differences in sociomoral functioning and factors contributing to early differences. SN - 0009-3920 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/1611936/Emotion_displays_in_two_year_olds_during_mishaps_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -