Steroid regulation of cell specific secreted phosphoprotein 1 (osteopontin) expression in the pregnant porcine uterus.Biol Reprod. 2005 Dec; 73(6):1294-301.BR
Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, commonly referred to as osteopontin and formerly known as bone sialoprotein 1, early T-lymphocyte activation 1) is an extracellular matrix/adhesion molecule that is upregulated in the pregnant uterus of all mammals examined to date. This study focused on the pig, which has true epitheliochorial placentation and exhibits induction of SPP1 mRNA in luminal epithelium (LE) just before conceptus attachment and in glandular epithelium (GE) after Day 30 of pregnancy. The objective of this study was to determine steroid regulation of SPP1 mRNA and protein in porcine uterine epithelium. To examine the effect of estrogen, cyclic gilts were treated daily (Days 11-14) with 5 mg estradiol benzoate (i.m.) and hysterectomized on Day 15. To evaluate the long-term effect of pseudopregnancy, cyclic gilts were given daily injections (Days 11-15) with steroid as above and hysterectomized on Day 90. In situ hybridization showed high expression of SPP1 mRNA only in LE contiguous with apposing conceptus tissue on Day 15 of pregnancy. In contrast, estrogen injection resulted in moderate but uniform SPP1 mRNA in all LE of Day 15 nonpregnant gilts, with expression maintained through Day 90 of pseudopregnancy. SPP1 mRNA also localized to the GE of Day 90 pseudopregnant gilts, similar to expression in late gestation. Consistent with in situ hybridization results, SPP1 protein localized to the apical surface of LE in all estrogen-treated gilts and in the GE on Day 90 of pseudopregnancy. We conclude that, in pregnant pigs, SPP1 is induced by conceptus estrogen in uterine LE and is regulated in GE in a manner coincident with CL/placental progesterone production.