Prevention of levodopa-induced dyskinesias by a selective NR1A/2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist in parkinsonian monkeys: implication of preproenkephalin.Mov Disord. 2006 Jan; 21(1):9-17.MD
Enkephalin is reported to play an important role in the pathophysiology of levodopa (LD) -induced dyskinesias. The present study investigated the effect of chronic treatment with a selective NR1A/2B N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, CI-1041, on the expression of preproenkephalin-A (PPE-A) in brains of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) -treated monkeys in relation to the development of LD-induced dyskinesias. Four MPTP-monkeys received LD/benserazide alone; they all developed dyskinesias. Four other MPTP-monkeys received LD/benserazide plus CI-1041; only one of them developed mild dyskinesias at the end of the fourth week of treatment. Four normal monkeys and four saline-treated MPTP monkeys were also included. MPTP-treated monkeys had extensive and similar striatal dopamine denervation. An increase of PPE-A mRNA levels assayed by in situ hybridization was observed in the lateral putamen (rostral and caudal) and caudate nucleus (rostral) of saline-treated MPTP monkeys compared to controls, whereas no change or a small increase was observed in their medial parts. Striatal PPE-A mRNA levels remained elevated in LD-treated MPTP monkeys, whereas cotreatment with CI-1041 brought them back to control values. These findings suggest that chronic blockade of striatal NR1A/2B NMDA receptors with CI-1041 normalizes PPE-A mRNA expression and prevents the development of LD-induced dyskinesias in an animal model of Parkinson disease.