The nutritional impact of dairy product consumption on dietary intakes of adults (1995-1996): the Bogalusa Heart Study.J Am Diet Assoc 2005; 105(9):1391-400JA
To examine the nutritional impact of dairy product consumption on the dietary intakes of adults.
Dietary intakes of adults who participated in a cross-sectional survey (1995-1996) in Bogalusa, LA.
Dietary intake data were collected on 1,266 adults (61% women, 39% men; 74% white, 26% African American) in Bogalusa, LA.
Analysis of covariance was used to examine the mean nutrient intake differences among four dairy consumption groups. Significance tests in multiple comparisons between any two groups were conducted using Tukey's procedure.
Forty-eight percent of adults consumed one serving or less of dairy products, 32% consumed two servings, 12% consumed three servings, and 8% consumed four or more servings. Overall mean intake of dairy was higher in whites (mean=1.63) compared with African Americans (mean=1.22) (P<.0001), especially the consumption of milk and cheese. No differences were found in overall mean intake of dairy servings by sex after adjusting for energy intake. However, women consumed significantly more servings of cheese (P<.0001) and yogurt (P<.01) than men. There were higher intakes of total energy, saturated fat, total protein, animal protein, and lactose (P<.0001), with greater number of servings of dairy products consumed. There were lower intakes of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (P<.0001), vegetable protein (P<.0001), total carbohydrates (P<.01), sucrose (P<.001), fructose (P<.0001), and fiber (P<.001). The percentage of energy from saturated fat (P<.0001) and protein (P<.001) increased with increasing number of dairy servings consumed. Intakes of calcium; magnesium; potassium; zinc; sodium; folate; thiamin; riboflavin; and vitamins B-6, B-12, A, D, and E were higher with greater number of dairy servings consumed. There was lower consumption of sweetened beverages (P<.001), specifically regular soft drinks (P<.0001), with greater consumption of milk products.
Dairy product consumption by adults has a major influence on their vitamin and mineral intakes. The higher intakes of saturated fat, total energy, and animal protein and lower intake of fiber suggest that it may be useful to consume lower-fat dairy products and/or modify eating patterns to optimize the nutritional contributions of dairy products. Public health organizations and dietetics professionals need to educate adults on practical strategies for increasing dairy product consumption for improving the nutritional quality of adults' diets.