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The endocannabinoid system in the physiology and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2005 Dec; 83(12):944-54.JM

Abstract

Numerous investigations have recently demonstrated the important roles of the endocannabinoid system in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In the GI tract, cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are present in neurons of the enteric nervous system and in sensory terminals of vagal and spinal neurons, while cannabinoid type 2 receptors are located in immune cells. Activation of CB1 receptors was shown to modulate several functions in the GI tract, including gastric secretion, gastric emptying and intestinal motility. Under pathophysiological conditions induced experimentally in rodents, the endocannabinoid system conveys protection to the GI tract (e.g. from inflammation and abnormally high gastric and enteric secretions). Such protective activities are largely in agreement with anecdotal reports from folk medicine on the use of Cannabis sativa extracts by subjects suffering from various GI disorders. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may serve as a potentially promising therapeutic target against different GI disorders, including frankly inflammatory bowel diseases (e.g. Crohn's disease), functional bowel diseases (e.g. irritable bowel syndrome) and secretion- and motility-related disorders. As stimulation of this modulatory system by CB1 receptor agonists can lead to unwanted psychotropic side effects, an alternative and promising avenue for therapeutic applications resides in the treatment with CB1 receptor agonists that are unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, or with compounds that inhibit the degradation of endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) of CB1 receptors, hence prolonging the activity of the endocannabinoid system.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Physiological Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, 55099 Mainz, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16133420

Citation

Massa, Federico, et al. "The Endocannabinoid System in the Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract." Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany), vol. 83, no. 12, 2005, pp. 944-54.
Massa F, Storr M, Lutz B. The endocannabinoid system in the physiology and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract. J Mol Med. 2005;83(12):944-54.
Massa, F., Storr, M., & Lutz, B. (2005). The endocannabinoid system in the physiology and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany), 83(12), 944-54.
Massa F, Storr M, Lutz B. The Endocannabinoid System in the Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. J Mol Med. 2005;83(12):944-54. PubMed PMID: 16133420.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The endocannabinoid system in the physiology and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract. AU - Massa,Federico, AU - Storr,Martin, AU - Lutz,Beat, Y1 - 2005/08/26/ PY - 2005/04/25/received PY - 2005/06/06/accepted PY - 2005/9/1/pubmed PY - 2006/5/4/medline PY - 2005/9/1/entrez SP - 944 EP - 54 JF - Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) JO - J. Mol. Med. VL - 83 IS - 12 N2 - Numerous investigations have recently demonstrated the important roles of the endocannabinoid system in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In the GI tract, cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are present in neurons of the enteric nervous system and in sensory terminals of vagal and spinal neurons, while cannabinoid type 2 receptors are located in immune cells. Activation of CB1 receptors was shown to modulate several functions in the GI tract, including gastric secretion, gastric emptying and intestinal motility. Under pathophysiological conditions induced experimentally in rodents, the endocannabinoid system conveys protection to the GI tract (e.g. from inflammation and abnormally high gastric and enteric secretions). Such protective activities are largely in agreement with anecdotal reports from folk medicine on the use of Cannabis sativa extracts by subjects suffering from various GI disorders. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may serve as a potentially promising therapeutic target against different GI disorders, including frankly inflammatory bowel diseases (e.g. Crohn's disease), functional bowel diseases (e.g. irritable bowel syndrome) and secretion- and motility-related disorders. As stimulation of this modulatory system by CB1 receptor agonists can lead to unwanted psychotropic side effects, an alternative and promising avenue for therapeutic applications resides in the treatment with CB1 receptor agonists that are unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, or with compounds that inhibit the degradation of endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) of CB1 receptors, hence prolonging the activity of the endocannabinoid system. SN - 0946-2716 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16133420/The_endocannabinoid_system_in_the_physiology_and_pathophysiology_of_the_gastrointestinal_tract_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-005-0698-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -