Aroma composition of red wines by different extraction methods and Gas Chromatography-SIM/MASS spectrometry analysis.Ann Chim. 2005 Jun; 95(6):383-94.AC
One hundred and one volatile compounds, reported in literature as powerful odorants of wine, were quantified by Gas Chromatography-Selective Ion Monitoring/Mass Spectrometry (GC-SIM/MS) in Primitivo, Aglianico, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. Wine samples were extracted by 3 different extraction methods: 1) separation of the alcoholic fraction from the aqueous phase by salting-out and subsequent extraction by liquid-liquid micro-extraction with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113); 2) extraction by liquid-liquid micro-extraction with dichloromethane; 3) solid phase extraction (SPE cartridge: 800 mg of LiChrolut EN resin) with pentane-dichloromethane (20:1) and dichloromethane. The selection of the ion fragments used for quantification was directly performed on a red wine sample. For each compound the area of the corresponding peak was normalized respect to the peak of the internal standard and then interpolated in a calibration curve obtained analysing a model wine solution (water, ethanol, tartaric acid and known amounts of analytes and of internal standard). The methods showed a good linearity: r2>0.990, except for farnesol (isomer a and c), octanal, decanal, furaneol and phenylacetic acid with 0.966 < or = r2 < or = 0.990. The 7 most powerful odorants were: beta-damascenone, acetaldehyde, maltol, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanoic acid and acetal; 7 other slightly less important were: ethyl hexanoate, ethyl acetate, 1-octen-3-ol, butanoic acid, rose oxide, furaneol and sotolon. The Aglianico wines were characterised by the major fermentation compounds (esters, fatty acids and 2-phenylethanol), beta-damascenone, beta-ionone and linalool. The Primitivo wines were characterized by furaneol, methoxypyrazine, gamma-nonalactone and acetaldehyde, while Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines principally by cask derivates (vanillin, (Z) 3-methyl-gamma-octalactone [(Z) wiskylactone], maltol and eugenol), some aldehydes and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine.