Development of cerebral infarction, apoptotic cell death and expression of X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein following focal cerebral ischemia in rats.Life Sci. 2006 Jan 11; 78(7):704-12.LS
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of apoptosis or necrosis in the development of delayed infarct, and the relationship between the level of XIAP gene, caspase-3 activation and ischemic cell death following transient focal cerebral ischemia. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) for 50 min and reperfusion for 0.5, 4, 8, 24 h, 3, 7, 14 days. On TTC-stained coronal sections, delayed infarct was observed to develop in the whole MCA territory, especially in frontoparietal cortex after ischemia. Near total infarct was shown in striatum 24 h after MCAo, while delayed infarct was evident in the cortex. By day 3, the infarct had progressively expanded to the nearly whole area of the frontoparietal cortex. Flow cytometric analysis of Annexin-V (marks apoptosis) and PI (propidium iodide, marks necrosis) labeling cells showed that MCAo dominantly induced necrosis in ischemic core, striatum. Apoptosis contributed to delayed infarct and cell death in the border zone, dorsolateral cortex and hippocampus. The time-course of caspase-3 activation was consistent with the changes of apoptosis and infarct following MCAo. Further RT-PCR experiments indicated that there was a biphasic regulation of XIAP in time- and region-dependent manner after ischemia. In the infarct core (striatum), following a transient and slight increase during 0.5 h to 4 h post-MCAo, expression of XIAP mRNA markedly decreased. On the other hand, a longer and larger upregulation of XIAP was observed at early time points in border zone (0.5 to 8 h, in dorsolateral cortex; 0.5 to 24 h in hippocampus), then the level of XIAP reduced. A negative correlation was observed between apoptosis and regulation of XIAP gene in these regions. Our findings suggest a possible association between expression of XIAP gene, apoptosis and delayed infarct following ischemia.