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Live attenuated influenza vaccine, trivalent, is safe in healthy children 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age in a community-based, nonrandomized, open-label trial.
Pediatrics. 2005 Sep; 116(3):e397-407.Ped

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Influenza-associated deaths in healthy children that were reported during the 2003-2004 influenza season heightened the public awareness of the seriousness of influenza in children. In 1996-1998, a pivotal phase III trial was conducted in children who were 15 to 71 months of age. Live attenuated influenza vaccine, trivalent (LAIV-T), was shown to be safe and efficacious. In a subsequent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled LAIV-T trial in children who were 1 to 17 years of age, a statistically significant increase in asthma encounters was observed for children who were younger than 59 months. LAIV-T was not licensed to children who were younger than 5 years because of the concern for asthma. We report on the largest safety study to date of the recently licensed LAIV-T in children 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age in a 4-year (1998-2002) community-based trial that was conducted at Scott & White Memorial Hospital and Clinic (Temple, TX).

METHODS

An open-label, nonrandomized, community-based trial of LAIV-T was conducted before its licensure. Medical records of all children were surveyed for serious adverse events (SAEs) 6 weeks after vaccination. Health care utilization was evaluated by determining the relative risk (RR) of medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI) and asthma rates at 0 to 14 and 15 to 42 days after vaccination compared with the rates before vaccination. Medical charts of all visits coded as asthma were reviewed for appropriate classification of events: acute asthma or other. We evaluated the risk for MAARI (health care utilization for acute respiratory illness) 0 to 14 and 15 to 42 days after LAIV-T by a method similar to the postlicensure safety analysis conducted on measles, mumps, and rubella and on diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis vaccines.

RESULTS

All children regardless of age were administered a single intranasal dose of LAIV-T in each vaccine year. In the 4 years of the study, we administered 18780 doses of LAIV-T to 11096 children. A total of 4529, 7036, and 7215 doses of LAIV-T were administered to children who were 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age, respectively. In vaccination years 1, 2, 3, and 4, we identified 10, 15, 11, and 6 SAEs, respectively. None of the SAEs was attributed to LAIV-T. In vaccination years 1, 2, 3, and 4, we identified 3, 2, 1, and 0 pregnancies, respectively, among adolescents. All delivered healthy infants. The RR for MAARI from 0 to 14 and 15 to 42 days after LAIV-T was assessed in vaccinees during the 4 vaccine years. Compared with the prevaccination period, there was no significant increase in risk in health care utilization attributed to MAARI from 0 to 14 and 15 to 42 days after vaccination in children who were 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age in the 4 vaccine years. In children who were 18 months to 4 years of age, there was no significant increase in the risk in health care utilization for MAARI, MAARI subcategories (otitis media/sinusitis, upper respiratory tract illness, and lower respiratory tract illness), and asthma during the 0 to 14 days after vaccination compared with the prevaccination period. No significant increase in the risk in health care utilization for MAARI, MAARI subcategories, and asthma was detected when the risk period was extended to 15 to 42 days after vaccination, except for asthma events in vaccine year 1. A RR of 2.85 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-8.03) for asthma events was detected in children who were 18 months to 4 years of age but was not significantly increased for the other 3 vaccine years (vaccine year 2, RR: 1.42 [95% CI: 0.59-3.42]; vaccine year 3, RR: 0.47 [95% CI: 0.12-1.83]; vaccine year 4, RR: 0.20 [95% CI: 0.03-1.54]). No significant increase in the risk in health care utilization for MAARI or asthma was observed in children who were 18 months to 18 years of age and received 1, 2, 3, or 4 annual sequential doses of LAIV-T. Children who were 18 months to 4 years of age and received 1, 2, 3, or 4 annual doses of LAIV-T did not experience a significant increase in the RR for MAARI 0 to 14 days after vaccination; this was also true for children who were 5 to 9 and 10 to 18 years of age.

CONCLUSIONS

We observed no increased risk for asthma events 0 to 14 days after vaccination in children who were 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age, In vaccine year 1, children who were 18 months to 4 years of age did have a significantly higher RR (2.85; 95% CI: 1.01-8.03) for asthma events 15 to 42 days after vaccination. In vaccine year 2, the formulation of LAIV-T was identical to the vaccine formulation used in vaccine year 1; however, in children who were 18 months to 4 years of age, no statistically significant increased risk was detected for asthma events 15 to 42 days after vaccination. Similarly, in vaccine years 3 and 4, children who were 18 months to 4 years of age did not have a statistically significant increased risk for asthma events 15 to 42 days after vaccination. Also, LAIV-T did not increase the risk for asthma in children who received 1, 2, 3, or 4 annual doses of LAIV-T. Although the possibility for a true increased risk for asthma was observed in 1 of 4 years in children who were 18 months to 4 years at 15 to 42 days after vaccination, it is more likely that the association is a chance effect because of the 190 comparisons made without adjustment for multiple comparisons. We conclude that LAIV-T is safe in children who are 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age. The hypothesis that LAIV-T is associated with an increase in asthma events in children who are younger than 5 years is not supported by our data. Reassessment of the lower age limit for use of LAIV-T in children is indicated.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ppiedra@bcm.tmc.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16140685

Citation

Piedra, Pedro A., et al. "Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine, Trivalent, Is Safe in Healthy Children 18 Months to 4 Years, 5 to 9 Years, and 10 to 18 Years of Age in a Community-based, Nonrandomized, Open-label Trial." Pediatrics, vol. 116, no. 3, 2005, pp. e397-407.
Piedra PA, Gaglani MJ, Riggs M, et al. Live attenuated influenza vaccine, trivalent, is safe in healthy children 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age in a community-based, nonrandomized, open-label trial. Pediatrics. 2005;116(3):e397-407.
Piedra, P. A., Gaglani, M. J., Riggs, M., Herschler, G., Fewlass, C., Watts, M., Kozinetz, C., Hessel, C., & Glezen, W. P. (2005). Live attenuated influenza vaccine, trivalent, is safe in healthy children 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age in a community-based, nonrandomized, open-label trial. Pediatrics, 116(3), e397-407.
Piedra PA, et al. Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine, Trivalent, Is Safe in Healthy Children 18 Months to 4 Years, 5 to 9 Years, and 10 to 18 Years of Age in a Community-based, Nonrandomized, Open-label Trial. Pediatrics. 2005;116(3):e397-407. PubMed PMID: 16140685.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Live attenuated influenza vaccine, trivalent, is safe in healthy children 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age in a community-based, nonrandomized, open-label trial. AU - Piedra,Pedro A, AU - Gaglani,Manjusha J, AU - Riggs,Mark, AU - Herschler,Gayla, AU - Fewlass,Charles, AU - Watts,Matt, AU - Kozinetz,Claudia, AU - Hessel,Colin, AU - Glezen,W Paul, PY - 2005/9/6/pubmed PY - 2005/12/15/medline PY - 2005/9/6/entrez SP - e397 EP - 407 JF - Pediatrics JO - Pediatrics VL - 116 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Influenza-associated deaths in healthy children that were reported during the 2003-2004 influenza season heightened the public awareness of the seriousness of influenza in children. In 1996-1998, a pivotal phase III trial was conducted in children who were 15 to 71 months of age. Live attenuated influenza vaccine, trivalent (LAIV-T), was shown to be safe and efficacious. In a subsequent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled LAIV-T trial in children who were 1 to 17 years of age, a statistically significant increase in asthma encounters was observed for children who were younger than 59 months. LAIV-T was not licensed to children who were younger than 5 years because of the concern for asthma. We report on the largest safety study to date of the recently licensed LAIV-T in children 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age in a 4-year (1998-2002) community-based trial that was conducted at Scott & White Memorial Hospital and Clinic (Temple, TX). METHODS: An open-label, nonrandomized, community-based trial of LAIV-T was conducted before its licensure. Medical records of all children were surveyed for serious adverse events (SAEs) 6 weeks after vaccination. Health care utilization was evaluated by determining the relative risk (RR) of medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI) and asthma rates at 0 to 14 and 15 to 42 days after vaccination compared with the rates before vaccination. Medical charts of all visits coded as asthma were reviewed for appropriate classification of events: acute asthma or other. We evaluated the risk for MAARI (health care utilization for acute respiratory illness) 0 to 14 and 15 to 42 days after LAIV-T by a method similar to the postlicensure safety analysis conducted on measles, mumps, and rubella and on diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis vaccines. RESULTS: All children regardless of age were administered a single intranasal dose of LAIV-T in each vaccine year. In the 4 years of the study, we administered 18780 doses of LAIV-T to 11096 children. A total of 4529, 7036, and 7215 doses of LAIV-T were administered to children who were 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age, respectively. In vaccination years 1, 2, 3, and 4, we identified 10, 15, 11, and 6 SAEs, respectively. None of the SAEs was attributed to LAIV-T. In vaccination years 1, 2, 3, and 4, we identified 3, 2, 1, and 0 pregnancies, respectively, among adolescents. All delivered healthy infants. The RR for MAARI from 0 to 14 and 15 to 42 days after LAIV-T was assessed in vaccinees during the 4 vaccine years. Compared with the prevaccination period, there was no significant increase in risk in health care utilization attributed to MAARI from 0 to 14 and 15 to 42 days after vaccination in children who were 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age in the 4 vaccine years. In children who were 18 months to 4 years of age, there was no significant increase in the risk in health care utilization for MAARI, MAARI subcategories (otitis media/sinusitis, upper respiratory tract illness, and lower respiratory tract illness), and asthma during the 0 to 14 days after vaccination compared with the prevaccination period. No significant increase in the risk in health care utilization for MAARI, MAARI subcategories, and asthma was detected when the risk period was extended to 15 to 42 days after vaccination, except for asthma events in vaccine year 1. A RR of 2.85 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-8.03) for asthma events was detected in children who were 18 months to 4 years of age but was not significantly increased for the other 3 vaccine years (vaccine year 2, RR: 1.42 [95% CI: 0.59-3.42]; vaccine year 3, RR: 0.47 [95% CI: 0.12-1.83]; vaccine year 4, RR: 0.20 [95% CI: 0.03-1.54]). No significant increase in the risk in health care utilization for MAARI or asthma was observed in children who were 18 months to 18 years of age and received 1, 2, 3, or 4 annual sequential doses of LAIV-T. Children who were 18 months to 4 years of age and received 1, 2, 3, or 4 annual doses of LAIV-T did not experience a significant increase in the RR for MAARI 0 to 14 days after vaccination; this was also true for children who were 5 to 9 and 10 to 18 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: We observed no increased risk for asthma events 0 to 14 days after vaccination in children who were 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age, In vaccine year 1, children who were 18 months to 4 years of age did have a significantly higher RR (2.85; 95% CI: 1.01-8.03) for asthma events 15 to 42 days after vaccination. In vaccine year 2, the formulation of LAIV-T was identical to the vaccine formulation used in vaccine year 1; however, in children who were 18 months to 4 years of age, no statistically significant increased risk was detected for asthma events 15 to 42 days after vaccination. Similarly, in vaccine years 3 and 4, children who were 18 months to 4 years of age did not have a statistically significant increased risk for asthma events 15 to 42 days after vaccination. Also, LAIV-T did not increase the risk for asthma in children who received 1, 2, 3, or 4 annual doses of LAIV-T. Although the possibility for a true increased risk for asthma was observed in 1 of 4 years in children who were 18 months to 4 years at 15 to 42 days after vaccination, it is more likely that the association is a chance effect because of the 190 comparisons made without adjustment for multiple comparisons. We conclude that LAIV-T is safe in children who are 18 months to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 18 years of age. The hypothesis that LAIV-T is associated with an increase in asthma events in children who are younger than 5 years is not supported by our data. Reassessment of the lower age limit for use of LAIV-T in children is indicated. SN - 1098-4275 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16140685/Live_attenuated_influenza_vaccine_trivalent_is_safe_in_healthy_children_18_months_to_4_years_5_to_9_years_and_10_to_18_years_of_age_in_a_community_based_nonrandomized_open_label_trial_ L2 - http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16140685 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -