Substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase to promote IL-6 induction in human dental pulp fibroblasts.Connect Tissue Res. 2005; 46(3):153-8.CT
Substance P (SP) induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, which are implicated in pulp inflammation. To determine the signal pathway of SP-induced IL-6, we examined the activities of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in human dental pulp cell (PF-10) cultures. SP induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK within 5 min; this activation persisted for up to 40 min and was independent of the activation of extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK-1 and ERK-2) that were induced after SP stimulation of PF-10 cells. As shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay p38 MAPK was not involved in SP-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB). However, p38 MAPK mediated SP-induced IL-6 production, as shown by the use of specific inhibitors of this kinase. Our results suggest that the activation of p38 MAPK is important for NF-kappaB-independent regulator of neurogenic inflammation in dental pulp tissues.