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The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS): South Africa, 1999.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The aim of the National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) in South Africa was to determine the nutrient intakes and anthropometric status of children (1-9 years old), as well as factors that influence their dietary intake.

DESIGN

This was a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of all children aged 1-9 years in South Africa. A nationally representative sample with provincial representation was selected using 1996 Census information.

SUBJECTS

Of the 3120 children who were originally sampled data were obtained from 2894, a response rate of 93%.

METHODS

The sociodemographic status of each household was assessed by a questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by means of a 24-hour recall and a food-frequency questionnaire from the caregivers of the children. Food purchasing practices were determined by means of a food procurement questionnaire. Hunger was assessed by a modified hunger scale questionnaire. Nutritional status was determined by means of anthropometric measurements: height, weight, head circumference and arm circumference.

RESULTS

At the national level, stunting (height-for-age below minus two standard deviations (< -2SD) from the reference median) was by far the most common nutritional disorder, affecting nearly one in five children. The children least affected (17%) were those living in urban areas. Even with regard to the latter, however, children living in informal urban areas were more severely affected (20%) compared with those living in formal urban areas (16%). A similar pattern emerged for the prevalence of underweight (weight-for-age < -2SD), with one in 10 children being affected at the national level. Furthermore, one in 10 (13%) and one in four (26%) children aged 1-3 years had an energy intake less than half and less than two-thirds of their daily energy needs, respectively. For South African children as a whole, the intakes of energy, calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamins A, D, C and E, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6 and folic acid were below two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. At the national level, data from the 24-hour recalls indicated that the most commonly consumed food items were maize, sugar, tea, whole milk and brown bread. For South African children overall, one in two households (52%) experienced hunger, one in four (23%) were at risk of hunger and only one in four households (25%) appeared food-secure.

CONCLUSION

The NFCS indicated that a large majority of households were food-insecure and that energy deficit and micronutrient deficiencies were common, resulting in a high prevalence of stunting. These results were used as motivation for the introduction of mandatory fortification in South Africa.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Human Nutrition, University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa. demetre@sun.ac.za

    , , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    Public health nutrition 8:5 2005 Aug pg 533-43

    MeSH

    Anthropometry
    Body Height
    Child
    Child Nutrition Disorders
    Child, Preschool
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Diet
    Diet Surveys
    Female
    Food Supply
    Food, Fortified
    Humans
    Hunger
    Infant
    Male
    Mental Recall
    Nutrition Surveys
    Nutritional Status
    South Africa
    Surveys and Questionnaires

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16153334

    Citation

    Labadarios, D, et al. "The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS): South Africa, 1999." Public Health Nutrition, vol. 8, no. 5, 2005, pp. 533-43.
    Labadarios D, Steyn NP, Maunder E, et al. The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS): South Africa, 1999. Public Health Nutr. 2005;8(5):533-43.
    Labadarios, D., Steyn, N. P., Maunder, E., MacIntryre, U., Gericke, G., Swart, R., ... Nel, J. H. (2005). The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS): South Africa, 1999. Public Health Nutrition, 8(5), pp. 533-43.
    Labadarios D, et al. The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS): South Africa, 1999. Public Health Nutr. 2005;8(5):533-43. PubMed PMID: 16153334.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS): South Africa, 1999. AU - Labadarios,D, AU - Steyn,N P, AU - Maunder,E, AU - MacIntryre,U, AU - Gericke,G, AU - Swart,R, AU - Huskisson,J, AU - Dannhauser,A, AU - Vorster,H H, AU - Nesmvuni,A E, AU - Nel,J H, PY - 2005/9/13/pubmed PY - 2006/1/28/medline PY - 2005/9/13/entrez SP - 533 EP - 43 JF - Public health nutrition JO - Public Health Nutr VL - 8 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The aim of the National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) in South Africa was to determine the nutrient intakes and anthropometric status of children (1-9 years old), as well as factors that influence their dietary intake. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of all children aged 1-9 years in South Africa. A nationally representative sample with provincial representation was selected using 1996 Census information. SUBJECTS: Of the 3120 children who were originally sampled data were obtained from 2894, a response rate of 93%. METHODS: The sociodemographic status of each household was assessed by a questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by means of a 24-hour recall and a food-frequency questionnaire from the caregivers of the children. Food purchasing practices were determined by means of a food procurement questionnaire. Hunger was assessed by a modified hunger scale questionnaire. Nutritional status was determined by means of anthropometric measurements: height, weight, head circumference and arm circumference. RESULTS: At the national level, stunting (height-for-age below minus two standard deviations (< -2SD) from the reference median) was by far the most common nutritional disorder, affecting nearly one in five children. The children least affected (17%) were those living in urban areas. Even with regard to the latter, however, children living in informal urban areas were more severely affected (20%) compared with those living in formal urban areas (16%). A similar pattern emerged for the prevalence of underweight (weight-for-age < -2SD), with one in 10 children being affected at the national level. Furthermore, one in 10 (13%) and one in four (26%) children aged 1-3 years had an energy intake less than half and less than two-thirds of their daily energy needs, respectively. For South African children as a whole, the intakes of energy, calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamins A, D, C and E, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6 and folic acid were below two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. At the national level, data from the 24-hour recalls indicated that the most commonly consumed food items were maize, sugar, tea, whole milk and brown bread. For South African children overall, one in two households (52%) experienced hunger, one in four (23%) were at risk of hunger and only one in four households (25%) appeared food-secure. CONCLUSION: The NFCS indicated that a large majority of households were food-insecure and that energy deficit and micronutrient deficiencies were common, resulting in a high prevalence of stunting. These results were used as motivation for the introduction of mandatory fortification in South Africa. SN - 1368-9800 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16153334/The_National_Food_Consumption_Survey__NFCS_:_South_Africa_1999_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1368980005000728/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -