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Systematic review of the effects of n-3 fatty acids in inflammatory bowel disease.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

n-3 Fatty acids are purported to have health effects in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but studies have reported mixed results.

OBJECTIVE

We aimed to synthesize published and unpublished evidence to determine estimates of the effect of n-3 fatty acids on clinical outcomes in IBD and whether n-3 fatty acids modify the effects of or need for treatment with other agents.

DESIGN

Computerized databases were searched for studies of n-3 fatty acids in immune-mediated diseases from 1966 to 2003. We also contacted experts in the nutraceutical industry to identify unpublished studies; however, none were identified.

RESULTS

Reviewers identified 13 controlled trials that assessed the effects of n-3 fatty acids on clinical, sigmoidoscopic, or histologic scores; rates of induced remission or relapse; or requirements for steroids and other immunosuppressive agents in Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis. Most clinical trials were of good quality. Fewer than 6 were identified that assessed the effects of n-3 fatty acids on any single outcome of clinical, endoscopic, or histologic scores or remission or relapse rates. Consistent across 3 studies was the finding that n-3 fatty acids reduce corticosteroid requirements, although statistical significance was shown in only 1 of these studies.

CONCLUSION

The available data are insufficient to draw conclusions about the effects of n-3 fatty acids on clinical, endoscopic, or histologic scores or remission or relapse rates.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Southern California Evidence-Based Practice Center, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138, USA. maclean@rand.org

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    Source

    MeSH

    Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Humans
    Immunosuppressive Agents
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Recurrence
    Remission Induction
    Severity of Illness Index
    Treatment Outcome

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Review
    Systematic Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16155275

    Citation

    MacLean, Catherine H., et al. "Systematic Review of the Effects of N-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 82, no. 3, 2005, pp. 611-9.
    MacLean CH, Mojica WA, Newberry SJ, et al. Systematic review of the effects of n-3 fatty acids in inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(3):611-9.
    MacLean, C. H., Mojica, W. A., Newberry, S. J., Pencharz, J., Garland, R. H., Tu, W., ... Morton, S. C. (2005). Systematic review of the effects of n-3 fatty acids in inflammatory bowel disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82(3), pp. 611-9.
    MacLean CH, et al. Systematic Review of the Effects of N-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(3):611-9. PubMed PMID: 16155275.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Systematic review of the effects of n-3 fatty acids in inflammatory bowel disease. AU - MacLean,Catherine H, AU - Mojica,Walter A, AU - Newberry,Sydne J, AU - Pencharz,James, AU - Garland,Rena Hasenfeld, AU - Tu,Wenli, AU - Hilton,Lara G, AU - Gralnek,Ian M, AU - Rhodes,Shannon, AU - Khanna,Puja, AU - Morton,Sally C, PY - 2005/9/13/pubmed PY - 2005/11/3/medline PY - 2005/9/13/entrez SP - 611 EP - 9 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 82 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: n-3 Fatty acids are purported to have health effects in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but studies have reported mixed results. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to synthesize published and unpublished evidence to determine estimates of the effect of n-3 fatty acids on clinical outcomes in IBD and whether n-3 fatty acids modify the effects of or need for treatment with other agents. DESIGN: Computerized databases were searched for studies of n-3 fatty acids in immune-mediated diseases from 1966 to 2003. We also contacted experts in the nutraceutical industry to identify unpublished studies; however, none were identified. RESULTS: Reviewers identified 13 controlled trials that assessed the effects of n-3 fatty acids on clinical, sigmoidoscopic, or histologic scores; rates of induced remission or relapse; or requirements for steroids and other immunosuppressive agents in Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis. Most clinical trials were of good quality. Fewer than 6 were identified that assessed the effects of n-3 fatty acids on any single outcome of clinical, endoscopic, or histologic scores or remission or relapse rates. Consistent across 3 studies was the finding that n-3 fatty acids reduce corticosteroid requirements, although statistical significance was shown in only 1 of these studies. CONCLUSION: The available data are insufficient to draw conclusions about the effects of n-3 fatty acids on clinical, endoscopic, or histologic scores or remission or relapse rates. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16155275/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn.82.3.611 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -