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Intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of community-acquired pneumonia in US men.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Essential fatty acids modulate inflammation and glucose metabolism and may alter infection risk.

OBJECTIVE

We examined the association between intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and fish and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia.

DESIGN

We prospectively evaluated 38,378 male US health professionals aged 44-79 y at the outset. We updated medical and lifestyle information biennially through questionnaires and diet every 4 y with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We excluded men who reported pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, other heart disease, arterial surgery, cancer, or asthma before 1990 or those with incomplete dietary data. Community-acquired pneumonia was determined by blinded medical record review of chest radiographs.

RESULTS

During 10 y of follow-up, there were 441 new cases of nonfatal community-acquired pneumonia. Pneumonia risk was lower in men in the highest energy-adjusted quintiles of intake than in men in the lowest quintiles of intake of linoleic acid [multivariate relative risk (RR): 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.96; P for trend = 0.01] and alpha-linolenic acid (multivariate RR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.93; P for trend = 0.01). Pneumonia risk decreased 4% for every 1-g/d increase in linoleic acid intake (multivariate RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.99). Pneumonia risk was reduced by 31% for every 1-g/d increase in alpha-linolenic acid intake (multivariate RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.93). Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were not significantly related to pneumonia risk.

CONCLUSION

Higher intakes of alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids and possibly of fish may reduce the risk of pneumonia.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. merchant@ccc.mcmaster.ca

    , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Animals
    Cohort Studies
    Community-Acquired Infections
    Confidence Intervals
    Diet Surveys
    Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Fatty Acids, Omega-6
    Fishes
    Follow-Up Studies
    Humans
    Incidence
    Life Style
    Linoleic Acid
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Multivariate Analysis
    Pneumonia
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    United States
    alpha-Linolenic Acid

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16155282

    Citation

    Merchant, Anwar T., et al. "Intake of N-6 and N-3 Fatty Acids and Fish and Risk of Community-acquired Pneumonia in US Men." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 82, no. 3, 2005, pp. 668-74.
    Merchant AT, Curhan GC, Rimm EB, et al. Intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of community-acquired pneumonia in US men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(3):668-74.
    Merchant, A. T., Curhan, G. C., Rimm, E. B., Willett, W. C., & Fawzi, W. W. (2005). Intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of community-acquired pneumonia in US men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82(3), pp. 668-74.
    Merchant AT, et al. Intake of N-6 and N-3 Fatty Acids and Fish and Risk of Community-acquired Pneumonia in US Men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(3):668-74. PubMed PMID: 16155282.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of community-acquired pneumonia in US men. AU - Merchant,Anwar T, AU - Curhan,Gary C, AU - Rimm,Eric B, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Fawzi,Wafaie W, PY - 2005/9/13/pubmed PY - 2005/11/3/medline PY - 2005/9/13/entrez SP - 668 EP - 74 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 82 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Essential fatty acids modulate inflammation and glucose metabolism and may alter infection risk. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and fish and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia. DESIGN: We prospectively evaluated 38,378 male US health professionals aged 44-79 y at the outset. We updated medical and lifestyle information biennially through questionnaires and diet every 4 y with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We excluded men who reported pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, other heart disease, arterial surgery, cancer, or asthma before 1990 or those with incomplete dietary data. Community-acquired pneumonia was determined by blinded medical record review of chest radiographs. RESULTS: During 10 y of follow-up, there were 441 new cases of nonfatal community-acquired pneumonia. Pneumonia risk was lower in men in the highest energy-adjusted quintiles of intake than in men in the lowest quintiles of intake of linoleic acid [multivariate relative risk (RR): 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.96; P for trend = 0.01] and alpha-linolenic acid (multivariate RR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.93; P for trend = 0.01). Pneumonia risk decreased 4% for every 1-g/d increase in linoleic acid intake (multivariate RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.99). Pneumonia risk was reduced by 31% for every 1-g/d increase in alpha-linolenic acid intake (multivariate RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.93). Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were not significantly related to pneumonia risk. CONCLUSION: Higher intakes of alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids and possibly of fish may reduce the risk of pneumonia. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16155282/Intake_of_n_6_and_n_3_fatty_acids_and_fish_and_risk_of_community_acquired_pneumonia_in_US_men_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn.82.3.668 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -