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Intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of community-acquired pneumonia in US men.
Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82(3):668-74AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Essential fatty acids modulate inflammation and glucose metabolism and may alter infection risk.

OBJECTIVE

We examined the association between intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and fish and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia.

DESIGN

We prospectively evaluated 38,378 male US health professionals aged 44-79 y at the outset. We updated medical and lifestyle information biennially through questionnaires and diet every 4 y with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We excluded men who reported pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, other heart disease, arterial surgery, cancer, or asthma before 1990 or those with incomplete dietary data. Community-acquired pneumonia was determined by blinded medical record review of chest radiographs.

RESULTS

During 10 y of follow-up, there were 441 new cases of nonfatal community-acquired pneumonia. Pneumonia risk was lower in men in the highest energy-adjusted quintiles of intake than in men in the lowest quintiles of intake of linoleic acid [multivariate relative risk (RR): 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.96; P for trend = 0.01] and alpha-linolenic acid (multivariate RR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.93; P for trend = 0.01). Pneumonia risk decreased 4% for every 1-g/d increase in linoleic acid intake (multivariate RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.99). Pneumonia risk was reduced by 31% for every 1-g/d increase in alpha-linolenic acid intake (multivariate RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.93). Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were not significantly related to pneumonia risk.

CONCLUSION

Higher intakes of alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids and possibly of fish may reduce the risk of pneumonia.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. merchant@ccc.mcmaster.caNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16155282

Citation

Merchant, Anwar T., et al. "Intake of N-6 and N-3 Fatty Acids and Fish and Risk of Community-acquired Pneumonia in US Men." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 82, no. 3, 2005, pp. 668-74.
Merchant AT, Curhan GC, Rimm EB, et al. Intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of community-acquired pneumonia in US men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(3):668-74.
Merchant, A. T., Curhan, G. C., Rimm, E. B., Willett, W. C., & Fawzi, W. W. (2005). Intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of community-acquired pneumonia in US men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82(3), pp. 668-74.
Merchant AT, et al. Intake of N-6 and N-3 Fatty Acids and Fish and Risk of Community-acquired Pneumonia in US Men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(3):668-74. PubMed PMID: 16155282.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of community-acquired pneumonia in US men. AU - Merchant,Anwar T, AU - Curhan,Gary C, AU - Rimm,Eric B, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Fawzi,Wafaie W, PY - 2005/9/13/pubmed PY - 2005/11/3/medline PY - 2005/9/13/entrez SP - 668 EP - 74 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 82 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Essential fatty acids modulate inflammation and glucose metabolism and may alter infection risk. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and fish and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia. DESIGN: We prospectively evaluated 38,378 male US health professionals aged 44-79 y at the outset. We updated medical and lifestyle information biennially through questionnaires and diet every 4 y with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We excluded men who reported pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, other heart disease, arterial surgery, cancer, or asthma before 1990 or those with incomplete dietary data. Community-acquired pneumonia was determined by blinded medical record review of chest radiographs. RESULTS: During 10 y of follow-up, there were 441 new cases of nonfatal community-acquired pneumonia. Pneumonia risk was lower in men in the highest energy-adjusted quintiles of intake than in men in the lowest quintiles of intake of linoleic acid [multivariate relative risk (RR): 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.96; P for trend = 0.01] and alpha-linolenic acid (multivariate RR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.93; P for trend = 0.01). Pneumonia risk decreased 4% for every 1-g/d increase in linoleic acid intake (multivariate RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.99). Pneumonia risk was reduced by 31% for every 1-g/d increase in alpha-linolenic acid intake (multivariate RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.93). Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were not significantly related to pneumonia risk. CONCLUSION: Higher intakes of alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids and possibly of fish may reduce the risk of pneumonia. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16155282/Intake_of_n_6_and_n_3_fatty_acids_and_fish_and_risk_of_community_acquired_pneumonia_in_US_men_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn.82.3.668 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -