Embedding leader characteristics: an examination of homogeneity of personality and values in organizations.J Appl Psychol. 2005 Sep; 90(5):1002-10.JA
The authors (a) investigated trait homogeneity in organizations by examining within-organization similarity among members' personality traits and personal values and (b) tested the relationship between the top leaders' personal characteristics and organizational profiles of personality and values. Results replicate and extend B. Schneider, D. B. Smith, S. Taylor, and J. Fleenor's (1998) hypothesis of the homogeneity of personality in organizations. Using data from CEOs and 467 employee participants from 32 organizations, the authors found evidence of within-organization homogeneity of both personality and values. Results also suggest initial empirical support for assumptions presented by E. Schein (1992) and B. Schneider (1987) about leader-follower congruence. Some implications regarding leadership and organizational behavior are discussed.