Treatment of full-thickness chondral defects with autologous chondrocyte implantation.Orthop Clin North Am 2005; 36(4):433-46OC
Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a reproducible treatment option for large full-thickness symptomatic chondral injuries with appropriate knowledge of technique and patient selection. It provides a cellular repair that offers a high percentage of good to excellent clinical results over a long follow-up period. It is applicable over a wide range of chondral injuries from simple to more complex lesions. It is essential that the intra-articular environment be as close to normal as possible for successful cartilage repair. Coexisting knee pathology must be aggressively treated. ACI does have a prolonged postoperative rehabilitation course necessitated by the biologic nature of the repair, and patients must be able to comply with the rehabilitation and temporary restrictions required for a successful outcome.