[Endoscopic management of variceal bleeding].Rev Gastroenterol Mex. 2005 Jan-Mar; 70(1):50-5.RG
For the primary prophilaxis of the variceal bleeding, non selective beta-blockers (propanolol, nadolol) are still the mainstay of treatment but endoscopic ligation are becoming more popular Thanks to modern control procedures the acute bleeding mortality has been reduced. Endoscopic ligation is the prefered method for esophageal varices and the cyanoacrylate injection is the better method for fundic varices. Pharmacological therapy with octreotide or terlipresine seems to be effective, specially if endoscopic treatment is not available. TIPS is a good salvage option in case of endoscopic or pharmacologic failure. Endoscopic ligation seems to be the prefered method for secondary prophylaxis, specially compared with sclerotherapy. Some drugs that reduce portal hypertension are a good alternative. It is still very necessary to define technique and criteria of endoscopic variceal eradication to reduce the great variability reported in published trials.