Genomic differentiation of Hordeum chilense from H. vulgare as revealed by repetitive and EST sequences.Genes Genet Syst. 2005 Jun; 80(3):147-59.GG
Hordeum vulgare, cultivated barley, and its wild relative, H. chilense, have several important traits that might be useful for wheat improvement. Here, in situ hybridization and barley expressed sequence tag (EST) markers were used to characterize and compare the chromosomes of H. chilense with those of H. vulgare. FISH with four repetitive DNA sequences, AG, AAG, 5S rDNA and 45S rDNA, was applied to the mitotic chromosomes of H. vulgare, H. chilense and available wheat-H. chilense addition and substitution lines. FISH with the AAG repeat differentiated the individual chromosomes of H. chilense and H. vulgare. The patterns of FISH signals in the two species differed greatly. The 45S rDNA signals were observed on two pairs of chromosomes in both species, while the 5S rDNA signals were observed on four pairs of chromosomes in H. vulgare and on one pair in H. chilense. The AG repeat showed FISH signals at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes of H. vulgare but none of the chromosomes of H. chilense. These results indicate that the chromosomes of the two species are highly differentiated. To study the homoeology between the two species, 209 EST markers of H. vulgare were allocated to individual chromosomes of H. chilense. One hundred and forty of the EST markers were allocated to respective chromosomes of H. chilense using the wheat-H. chilense addition and substitution lines. Twenty-six EST markers on average were allocated to each chromosome except to the chromosome 2H(ch)S, to which only 10 markers were allocated. Ninety percent of the allocated EST markers in H. chilense were placed on H. vulgare chromosomes of the same homo-eologous group, indicating that the expressed sequences of the two species were highly conserved. These EST markers would be useful for detecting chromatin introgressed from these species into the wheat genome.