Comparison of chloral hydrate, meperidine, and hydroxyzine to midazolam regimens for oral sedation of pediatric dental patients.Pediatr Dent. 2005 May-Jun; 27(3):191-7.PD
The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the effects of oral administration of a combination of chloral hydrate (CH) 25 mg/kg, hydroxyzine (H) 1 mg/kg, and meperidine (M) 1 mg/kg to midazolam 0.65 mg/kg using 50% nitrous oxide (N2O) on behavioral and physiological parameters of young children sedated for dental procedures. Factors associated with sedation effectiveness were identified, including age, preoperative behavior, and type of procedure.
Records of 116 sedation sessions of 66 healthy, uncooperative children ages 24 to 60 months at The University of Iowa Centers for Disabilities and Development were reviewed. Patients received 1 of the 2 regimens. Intraoperative behavior was rated using a dichotomous scale. Physiological variables including heart rate and oxygen saturation were recorded at baseline and at 10-minute intervals of the session. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 9.
Overall, 81 % of sessions were rated successful. Sedation sessions using CH+H+M combination had significantly higher success rate (P<.01, odds ratio=3.38, 95% confidence interval= 1.06 to 7.15) compared to sessions with midazolam. Sedation success was not associated with age, preoperative behavior, or type of dental procedure performed. Physiological variables were within the normal range for both regimens, although midazolam regimen recorded higher heart rates.
CH+H+M combination using 25 mg/kg CH resulted in significantly more effective sedation sessions compared to midazolam. Both regimens used 50% N2O and were found to be safe.