Changing epidemiology of melioidosis? A case of acute pulmonary melioidosis with fatal outcome imported from Brazil.Epidemiol Infect. 2005 Oct; 133(5):871-5.EI
Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. It is endemic in South East Asia and tropical regions of Northern Australia. Sporadic cases have been described elsewhere. In this article we present a case of acute pulmonary melioidosis with fatal outcome imported from Brazil. The most common pathogen causing severe community-acquired pneumonia in Brazil is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Other possible pathogens include Legionella spp., Mycoplasma pneumonia, Gram-negative rods and viruses. There are few reports of melioidosis in the Americas. This article represents the second known human case of melioidosis from Brazil. Recognition of melioidosis as a possible cause of severe pneumonia, even if a patient has not been travelling in a highly endemic area, is important because of the therapeutic consequences. The epidemiology of melioidosis will be reviewed.