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Serum zinc correlates with parent- and teacher- rated inattention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005 Aug; 15(4):628-36.JC

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of zinc nutrition to the severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a middle-class American sample with well-diagnosed ADHD. Previous reports of zinc in ADHD, including two positive clinical trials of supplementation, have come mainly from countries and cultures with different diets and/or socioeconomic realities.

METHOD

Children 5-10 years of age with DISC- and clinician-diagnosed ADHD had serum zinc determinations and parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms. Zinc levels were correlated (Pearson's and multiple regression) with ADHD symptom ratings.

RESULTS

Forty-eight children (37 boys, 11 girls; 33 combined type, 15 inattentive) had serum zinc levels with a median/mode at the lowest 30% of the laboratory reference range; 44 children also had parent/teacher ratings. Serum magnesium levels were normal. Nutritional intake by a parent-answered food frequency questionnaire was unremarkable. Serum zinc correlated at r = -0.45 (p = 0.004) with parent-teacher-rated inattention, even after controlling for gender, age, income, and diagnostic subtype, but only at r = -0.20 (p = 0.22) with CPT omission errors. In contrast, correlation with parent-teacher-rated hyperactivity-impulsivity was nonsignificant in the opposite direction.

CONCLUSION

These findings add to accumulating evidence for a possible role of zinc in ADHD, even for middle-class Americans, and, for the first time, suggest a special relationship to inattentive symptoms. They do not establish either that zinc deficiency causes ADHD nor that ADHD should be treated with zinc. Hypothesis-testing clinical trials are needed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43074, USA. arnold.6@osw.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16190794

Citation

Arnold, L Eugene, et al. "Serum Zinc Correlates With Parent- and Teacher- Rated Inattention in Children With Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder." Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, vol. 15, no. 4, 2005, pp. 628-36.
Arnold LE, Bozzolo H, Hollway J, et al. Serum zinc correlates with parent- and teacher- rated inattention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005;15(4):628-36.
Arnold, L. E., Bozzolo, H., Hollway, J., Cook, A., DiSilvestro, R. A., Bozzolo, D. R., Crowl, L., Ramadan, Y., & Williams, C. (2005). Serum zinc correlates with parent- and teacher- rated inattention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 15(4), 628-36.
Arnold LE, et al. Serum Zinc Correlates With Parent- and Teacher- Rated Inattention in Children With Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005;15(4):628-36. PubMed PMID: 16190794.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Serum zinc correlates with parent- and teacher- rated inattention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. AU - Arnold,L Eugene, AU - Bozzolo,Hernan, AU - Hollway,Jill, AU - Cook,Amy, AU - DiSilvestro,Robert A, AU - Bozzolo,Dawn R, AU - Crowl,Lindsay, AU - Ramadan,Yaser, AU - Williams,Craig, PY - 2005/9/30/pubmed PY - 2005/12/16/medline PY - 2005/9/30/entrez SP - 628 EP - 36 JF - Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology JO - J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol VL - 15 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of zinc nutrition to the severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a middle-class American sample with well-diagnosed ADHD. Previous reports of zinc in ADHD, including two positive clinical trials of supplementation, have come mainly from countries and cultures with different diets and/or socioeconomic realities. METHOD: Children 5-10 years of age with DISC- and clinician-diagnosed ADHD had serum zinc determinations and parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms. Zinc levels were correlated (Pearson's and multiple regression) with ADHD symptom ratings. RESULTS: Forty-eight children (37 boys, 11 girls; 33 combined type, 15 inattentive) had serum zinc levels with a median/mode at the lowest 30% of the laboratory reference range; 44 children also had parent/teacher ratings. Serum magnesium levels were normal. Nutritional intake by a parent-answered food frequency questionnaire was unremarkable. Serum zinc correlated at r = -0.45 (p = 0.004) with parent-teacher-rated inattention, even after controlling for gender, age, income, and diagnostic subtype, but only at r = -0.20 (p = 0.22) with CPT omission errors. In contrast, correlation with parent-teacher-rated hyperactivity-impulsivity was nonsignificant in the opposite direction. CONCLUSION: These findings add to accumulating evidence for a possible role of zinc in ADHD, even for middle-class Americans, and, for the first time, suggest a special relationship to inattentive symptoms. They do not establish either that zinc deficiency causes ADHD nor that ADHD should be treated with zinc. Hypothesis-testing clinical trials are needed. SN - 1044-5463 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16190794/Serum_zinc_correlates_with_parent__and_teacher__rated_inattention_in_children_with_attention_deficit/hyperactivity_disorder_ L2 - https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/cap.2005.15.628?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -