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Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms.
Addict Biol 2005; 10(2):165-9AB

Abstract

Opioid withdrawal, stress or cues associated with opioid consumption can induce opioid craving. If opioids are not available, opioid-dependent patients usually search for alternative drugs. Because several non-opioid drugs stimulate the endogenous opioidergic system, this concept may explain their frequent use by opioid-dependent patients. We hypothesized that non-opioid drugs alleviate opioid withdrawal symptoms and are therefore consumed by opioid addicts. We asked 89 opioid-dependent patients participating in an out-patient opioid maintenance program to estimate the potential of several non-opioid drugs in being able to alleviate opioid withdrawal. We applied a five-point Lickert scale (1 = very good reduction of opioid withdrawal; 5 = no reduction of opioid withdrawal). Patients could also indicate a worsening of opioid withdrawal. Values (mean +/- SD) were: for benzodiazepines, 3.2 +/- 1.1; tricyclic antidepressants, 3.6 +/- 1.1; cannabis, 3.6 +/- 1.0; alcohol, 4.1 +/- 1.1; cocaine, 4.2 +/- 1.1; amphetamine, 4.4 +/- 0.9; nicotine, 4.7 +/- 0.7; and caffeine, 4.9 +/- 0.5. A worsening of opioid withdrawal was reported by 62% of the patients for cocaine, 62% for amphetamine, 50% for caffeine, 37.5% for cannabis, 27% for nicotine, 26% for alcohol, 8% for tricyclic antidepressants and 3% for benzodiazepines. Our study shows a low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms. The data basis of this study was good and the sample was suitable to be asked for estimations of drug-drug interactions. Of the patients, 26 - 62% even reported a worsening of opioid withdrawal for cannabis, alcohol, cocaine and amphetamine. Only benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were reported to have a moderate positive effect on opioid withdrawal.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Addictive Behavior and Addiction Medicine, Central Institute of Mental Health, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16191669

Citation

Hermann, Derik, et al. "Low Efficacy of Non-opioid Drugs in Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms." Addiction Biology, vol. 10, no. 2, 2005, pp. 165-9.
Hermann D, Klages E, Welzel H, et al. Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms. Addict Biol. 2005;10(2):165-9.
Hermann, D., Klages, E., Welzel, H., Mann, K., & Croissant, B. (2005). Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms. Addiction Biology, 10(2), pp. 165-9.
Hermann D, et al. Low Efficacy of Non-opioid Drugs in Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms. Addict Biol. 2005;10(2):165-9. PubMed PMID: 16191669.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms. AU - Hermann,Derik, AU - Klages,Eckard, AU - Welzel,Helga, AU - Mann,Karl, AU - Croissant,Bernhard, PY - 2005/9/30/pubmed PY - 2005/11/3/medline PY - 2005/9/30/entrez SP - 165 EP - 9 JF - Addiction biology JO - Addict Biol VL - 10 IS - 2 N2 - Opioid withdrawal, stress or cues associated with opioid consumption can induce opioid craving. If opioids are not available, opioid-dependent patients usually search for alternative drugs. Because several non-opioid drugs stimulate the endogenous opioidergic system, this concept may explain their frequent use by opioid-dependent patients. We hypothesized that non-opioid drugs alleviate opioid withdrawal symptoms and are therefore consumed by opioid addicts. We asked 89 opioid-dependent patients participating in an out-patient opioid maintenance program to estimate the potential of several non-opioid drugs in being able to alleviate opioid withdrawal. We applied a five-point Lickert scale (1 = very good reduction of opioid withdrawal; 5 = no reduction of opioid withdrawal). Patients could also indicate a worsening of opioid withdrawal. Values (mean +/- SD) were: for benzodiazepines, 3.2 +/- 1.1; tricyclic antidepressants, 3.6 +/- 1.1; cannabis, 3.6 +/- 1.0; alcohol, 4.1 +/- 1.1; cocaine, 4.2 +/- 1.1; amphetamine, 4.4 +/- 0.9; nicotine, 4.7 +/- 0.7; and caffeine, 4.9 +/- 0.5. A worsening of opioid withdrawal was reported by 62% of the patients for cocaine, 62% for amphetamine, 50% for caffeine, 37.5% for cannabis, 27% for nicotine, 26% for alcohol, 8% for tricyclic antidepressants and 3% for benzodiazepines. Our study shows a low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms. The data basis of this study was good and the sample was suitable to be asked for estimations of drug-drug interactions. Of the patients, 26 - 62% even reported a worsening of opioid withdrawal for cannabis, alcohol, cocaine and amphetamine. Only benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were reported to have a moderate positive effect on opioid withdrawal. SN - 1355-6215 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16191669/Low_efficacy_of_non_opioid_drugs_in_opioid_withdrawal_symptoms_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1080/13556210500123514 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -