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Acute consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa and the reversal of endothelial dysfunction in smokers.
J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 46(7):1276-83JACC

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

This study was designed to assess the effect of flavanol-rich food on the circulating pool of bioactive nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial dysfunction in smokers.

BACKGROUND

Studies suggest that smoking-related vascular disease is caused by impaired NO synthesis and that diets rich in flavanols can increase bioactive NO in plasma.

METHODS

In smokers (n = 11), the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on circulating NO species in plasma (RXNO) measured by reductive gas-phase chemiluminescence and endothelial function as assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were characterized in a dose-finding study orally administering cocoa containing 88 to 370 mg flavanols and in a randomized double-blind crossover study using 100 ml cocoa drink with high (176 to 185 mg) or low (<11 mg) flavanol content on two separate days. In addition to cocoa drink, ascorbic acid and NO-synthase inhibitor L-NMMA (n = 4) were applied.

RESULTS

There were significant increases in RXNO (21 +/- 3 nmol/l to 29 +/- 5 nmol/l) and FMD (4.5 +/- 0.8% to 6.9 +/- 0.9%, each p < 0.05) at 2 h after ingestion of 176 to 185 mg flavanols, a dose potentially exerting maximal effects. These changes correlated with increases in flavanol metabolites. Cocoa-associated increases in RXNO and FMD were reversed by L-NMMA. Ascorbic acid had no effect.

CONCLUSIONS

The circulating pool of bioactive NO and endothelium-dependent vasodilation is acutely increased in smokers following the oral ingestion of a flavanol-rich cocoa drink. The increase in circulating NO pool may contribute to beneficial vascular health effects of flavanol-rich food.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16198843

Citation

Heiss, Christian, et al. "Acute Consumption of Flavanol-rich Cocoa and the Reversal of Endothelial Dysfunction in Smokers." Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 46, no. 7, 2005, pp. 1276-83.
Heiss C, Kleinbongard P, Dejam A, et al. Acute consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa and the reversal of endothelial dysfunction in smokers. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46(7):1276-83.
Heiss, C., Kleinbongard, P., Dejam, A., Perré, S., Schroeter, H., Sies, H., & Kelm, M. (2005). Acute consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa and the reversal of endothelial dysfunction in smokers. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 46(7), pp. 1276-83.
Heiss C, et al. Acute Consumption of Flavanol-rich Cocoa and the Reversal of Endothelial Dysfunction in Smokers. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Oct 4;46(7):1276-83. PubMed PMID: 16198843.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Acute consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa and the reversal of endothelial dysfunction in smokers. AU - Heiss,Christian, AU - Kleinbongard,Petra, AU - Dejam,Andrè, AU - Perré,Sandra, AU - Schroeter,Hagen, AU - Sies,Helmut, AU - Kelm,Malte, PY - 2004/12/01/received PY - 2005/06/03/revised PY - 2005/06/06/accepted PY - 2005/10/4/pubmed PY - 2005/12/24/medline PY - 2005/10/4/entrez SP - 1276 EP - 83 JF - Journal of the American College of Cardiology JO - J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. VL - 46 IS - 7 N2 - OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the effect of flavanol-rich food on the circulating pool of bioactive nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial dysfunction in smokers. BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that smoking-related vascular disease is caused by impaired NO synthesis and that diets rich in flavanols can increase bioactive NO in plasma. METHODS: In smokers (n = 11), the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on circulating NO species in plasma (RXNO) measured by reductive gas-phase chemiluminescence and endothelial function as assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were characterized in a dose-finding study orally administering cocoa containing 88 to 370 mg flavanols and in a randomized double-blind crossover study using 100 ml cocoa drink with high (176 to 185 mg) or low (<11 mg) flavanol content on two separate days. In addition to cocoa drink, ascorbic acid and NO-synthase inhibitor L-NMMA (n = 4) were applied. RESULTS: There were significant increases in RXNO (21 +/- 3 nmol/l to 29 +/- 5 nmol/l) and FMD (4.5 +/- 0.8% to 6.9 +/- 0.9%, each p < 0.05) at 2 h after ingestion of 176 to 185 mg flavanols, a dose potentially exerting maximal effects. These changes correlated with increases in flavanol metabolites. Cocoa-associated increases in RXNO and FMD were reversed by L-NMMA. Ascorbic acid had no effect. CONCLUSIONS: The circulating pool of bioactive NO and endothelium-dependent vasodilation is acutely increased in smokers following the oral ingestion of a flavanol-rich cocoa drink. The increase in circulating NO pool may contribute to beneficial vascular health effects of flavanol-rich food. SN - 1558-3597 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16198843/Acute_consumption_of_flavanol_rich_cocoa_and_the_reversal_of_endothelial_dysfunction_in_smokers_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0735-1097(05)01581-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -