Dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines in a Chinese population.Nutr Cancer. 2005; 52(2):147-55.NC
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formed in meat during high-temperature cooking have been associated with risk of colorectal and breast cancer. Incidence of these cancers is increasing in Singapore, a country with 77% ethnic Chinese. The purpose of this study was to estimate HAA levels in the Chinese diet and individual levels of exposure to these compounds because little is known. Twenty-five samples (each pooled from three sources) of meat and fish, cooked as commonly consumed, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for concentrations (ng/g) of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3, 4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8- dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3, 4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2- amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-amino -1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, and 2- amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Dietary meat consumption data (g/day), including meat type and cooking method, were gathered from food-frequency questionnaires completed by 497 randomly sampled Chinese men and women aged 20-59 yr. PhIP, MeIQx, and 4,8-DiMeIQx were the most abundant HAAs detected. Total HAA concentrations ranged from <0.10 to 6.77 ng/g, of which Chinese-style roasted pork had the highest levels. The estimated mean daily exposure to HAA was 49.95 ng/day (P10 14.0 ng/day, P90 95.8 ng/day); this was 50% higher among younger (20-39 yr) compared with older individuals. Seven specific meat-cooking method combinations contributed 90.1% of this intake, namely, pan-fried fish, pork, and chicken, deep-fried chicken as well as fish, roasted/barbecued pork, and grilled minced beef.