Evolution of the absorption profile of cyclosporine A in renal transplant recipients: a longitudinal study of the de novo and maintenance phases.Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21(1):197-202ND
Therapeutic drug monitoring for cyclosporine microemulsion (CsA-ME) is often performed using either trough levels (C0) or levels at 2 h post-dose (C2). This analysis assessed changes in C0 and C2 and their relationship to CsA-ME dose over time post-transplant in renal transplant patients.
Data were obtained from MO2ART, a prospective multicentre trial in which CsA-ME dose was adjusted based on C2 level. All 98 patients in whom C0 and C2 were available at day 5, month 3 and month 12 were included, out of 234 who completed the 12 month study. Normalized dose (ND) of CsA-ME, defined as dose per kilogram body weight, was calculated, together with C0/ND, C2/ND and C2/C0.
C0/ND and C2/ND both increased between day 5 and month 3: C0/ND from 33+/-15 to 53+/-24 (ng/ml)/(mg/kg) and C2/ND from 161+/-64 to 248+/-80 (ng/ml)/(mg/kg). Between month 3 and month 12, C2/ND remained stable but C0/ND decreased to 42+/-20 (ng/ml)/(mg/kg) while the C2/C0 ratio increased from 5.2+/-1.9 to 6.5+/-2.3, indicating an acceleration of drug elimination. The inter-individual coefficient of variation was higher for C0/ND than for C2/ND at 3 months (45 vs 32%, P<0.05) and at 12 months (48 vs 31%, P<0.01).
CsA clearance accelerates between months 3 and 12 post-transplant, resulting in lower C0 levels for a given exposure (as measured by C2). As a consequence, C0 monitoring may progressively underestimate CsA exposure during the first year post-transplant. C2 monitoring contributes to improved individualized CsA-ME treatment in both the de novo phase and beyond month 3.