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Determination of glycaemic index; some methodological aspects related to the analysis of carbohydrate load and characteristics of the previous evening meal.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To determine the possible differences in glycaemic index (GI) depending on (1) the analytical method used to calculate the 'available carbohydrate' load, that is, using carbohydrates by difference (total carbohydrate by difference, minus dietary fibre (DF)) as available carbohydrates vs available starch basis (total starch minus resistant starch (RS)) of a food rich in intrinsic RS and (2) the effect of GI characteristics and/or the content of indigestible carbohydrates (RS and DF) of the evening meal prior to GI testing the following morning.

DESIGN

Blood glucose and serum insulin responses were studied after subjects consuming (1) two levels of barley kernels rich in intrinsic RS (15.2%, total starch basis) and (2) after a standard breakfast following three different evening meals varying in GI and/or indigestible carbohydrates: pasta, barley kernels and white wheat bread, respectively.

SUBJECTS

Healthy adults with normal body mass index.

RESULTS

(1) Increasing the portion size of barley kernels from 79.6 g (50 g 'available carbohydrates') to 93.9 g (50 g available starch) to adjust for its RS content did not significantly affect the GI or insulin index (11). (2) The low GI barley evening meal, as opposed to white wheat bread and pasta evening meals, reduced the postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic (23 and 29%, respectively, P < 0.05) areas under the curve at a standardized white bread breakfast fed the following morning.

CONCLUSION

(1) Increasing portion size to compensate for the considerable portion of RS in a low GI barley product had no significant impact on GI or II. However, for GI testing, it is recommended to base carbohydrate load on specific analyses of the available carbohydrate content. (2) A low GI barley evening meal containing high levels of indigestible carbohydrates (RS and DF) substantially reduced the GI and II of white wheat bread determined at a subsequent breakfast meal.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Sweden. Yvonne.Granfeldt@inl.lth.se

    ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Area Under Curve
    Biological Availability
    Blood Glucose
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fiber
    Digestion
    Edible Grain
    Female
    Food Analysis
    Glycemic Index
    Humans
    Insulin
    Intestinal Absorption
    Male
    Nutritive Value
    Postprandial Period
    Starch

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16205745

    Citation

    Granfeldt, Y, et al. "Determination of Glycaemic Index; some Methodological Aspects Related to the Analysis of Carbohydrate Load and Characteristics of the Previous Evening Meal." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 60, no. 1, 2006, pp. 104-12.
    Granfeldt Y, Wu X, Björck I. Determination of glycaemic index; some methodological aspects related to the analysis of carbohydrate load and characteristics of the previous evening meal. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006;60(1):104-12.
    Granfeldt, Y., Wu, X., & Björck, I. (2006). Determination of glycaemic index; some methodological aspects related to the analysis of carbohydrate load and characteristics of the previous evening meal. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60(1), pp. 104-12.
    Granfeldt Y, Wu X, Björck I. Determination of Glycaemic Index; some Methodological Aspects Related to the Analysis of Carbohydrate Load and Characteristics of the Previous Evening Meal. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006;60(1):104-12. PubMed PMID: 16205745.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Determination of glycaemic index; some methodological aspects related to the analysis of carbohydrate load and characteristics of the previous evening meal. AU - Granfeldt,Y, AU - Wu,X, AU - Björck,I, PY - 2005/10/6/pubmed PY - 2006/4/21/medline PY - 2005/10/6/entrez SP - 104 EP - 12 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 60 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To determine the possible differences in glycaemic index (GI) depending on (1) the analytical method used to calculate the 'available carbohydrate' load, that is, using carbohydrates by difference (total carbohydrate by difference, minus dietary fibre (DF)) as available carbohydrates vs available starch basis (total starch minus resistant starch (RS)) of a food rich in intrinsic RS and (2) the effect of GI characteristics and/or the content of indigestible carbohydrates (RS and DF) of the evening meal prior to GI testing the following morning. DESIGN: Blood glucose and serum insulin responses were studied after subjects consuming (1) two levels of barley kernels rich in intrinsic RS (15.2%, total starch basis) and (2) after a standard breakfast following three different evening meals varying in GI and/or indigestible carbohydrates: pasta, barley kernels and white wheat bread, respectively. SUBJECTS: Healthy adults with normal body mass index. RESULTS: (1) Increasing the portion size of barley kernels from 79.6 g (50 g 'available carbohydrates') to 93.9 g (50 g available starch) to adjust for its RS content did not significantly affect the GI or insulin index (11). (2) The low GI barley evening meal, as opposed to white wheat bread and pasta evening meals, reduced the postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic (23 and 29%, respectively, P < 0.05) areas under the curve at a standardized white bread breakfast fed the following morning. CONCLUSION: (1) Increasing portion size to compensate for the considerable portion of RS in a low GI barley product had no significant impact on GI or II. However, for GI testing, it is recommended to base carbohydrate load on specific analyses of the available carbohydrate content. (2) A low GI barley evening meal containing high levels of indigestible carbohydrates (RS and DF) substantially reduced the GI and II of white wheat bread determined at a subsequent breakfast meal. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16205745/Determination_of_glycaemic_index L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602273 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -