Chloride turnover and ion-transporting activities of yolk-sac preparations (yolk balls) separated from Mozambique tilapia embryos and incubated in freshwater and seawater.J Exp Biol. 2005 Oct; 208(Pt 20):3851-8.JE
We have recently established a unique in vitro experimental model for mitochondrion-rich cell (MRC) research, a ;yolk-ball' incubation system, in which the yolk sac is separated from the embryonic body of Mozambique tilapia embryos and subjected to in vitro incubation. To evaluate the ion-transporting property of the yolk balls, we examined Cl- content and turnover in yolk balls incubated in freshwater and seawater for 48 h, and distribution patterns of three ion transporters, Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), in MRCs in the yolk-sac membrane. The Cl- turnover rate measured by whole-body influx of 36Cl- was about 60 times higher in yolk balls in seawater than in freshwater, while there was no essential difference in Cl- content between them. Na+/K+-ATPase-immunoreactive MRCs were larger in yolk balls from seawater than yolk balls from freshwater. Distribution patterns of ion-transporting proteins allowed us to classify MRCs in freshwater yolk balls into three types: cells showing only basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase, cells showing basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase and apical NKCC, and cells showing basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase and basolateral NKCC. The seawater yolk balls, on the other hand, were characterized by the appearance of MRCs possessing basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase, basolateral NKCC and apical CFTR. Those seawater-type MRCs were considered to secrete Cl- through the CFTR-positive apical opening to cope with diffusional Cl- influx. These findings indicate that the yolk balls preserve the Cl- transporting property of intact embryos, ensuring the propriety of the yolk ball as an in vitro experimental model for the yolk-sac membrane that contains MRCs.