Fed-batch cultivation of Mucor indicus in dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate for ethanol production.Biotechnol Lett. 2005 Sep; 27(18):1395-400.BL
Mucor indicus fermented dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzates to ethanol in fed-batch cultivation with complete hexose utilization and partial uptake of xylose. The fungus was tolerant to the inhibitors present in the hydrolyzates. It grew in media containing furfural (1 g/l), hydroxymethylfurfural (1 g/l), vanillin (1 g/l), or acetic acid (7 g/l), but did not germinate directly in the hydrolyzate. However, with fed-batch methodology, after initial growth of M. indicus in 500 ml enzymatic wheat hydrolyzate, lignocellulosic hydrolyzate was fermented with feeding rates 55 and 100 ml/h. The fungus consumed more than 46% of the initial xylose, while less than half of this xylose was excreted in the form of xylitol. The ethanol yield was 0.43 g/g total consumed sugar, and reached the maximum concentration of 19.6 g ethanol/l at the end of feeding phase. Filamentous growth, which is regarded as the main obstacle to large-scale cultivation of M. indicus, was avoided in the fed-batch experiments.