Additive or synergetic effects of phenolic compounds on human low density lipoprotein oxidation.Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Apr; 44(4):510-6.FC
The in vitro assessment of the antioxidant capacity of four phenolic compounds; catechin, hesperidin, ferulic acid, and quercetin was evaluated by the examination of their ability to inhibit copper (Cu(2+))-mediated human low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Individually, the enrichment of LDLs with various concentrations of catechin, hesperidin, ferulic acid, and quercetin produced both antioxidant and prooxidant effects depending on enrichment concentrations of the polyphenolic compounds. Catechin and hesperidin had predominantly antioxidant effects (51.1%, 76.9%, respectively) while ferulic acid and quercetin had mostly prooxidant effects (166.4%; 191.8%, respectively) on LDL oxidation. However, when the mixture of the four phenolic compounds was used to enrich the LDLs, significant antioxidant capacity was demonstrated at all enrichment levels with a dose-response. Synergistic effects of the polyphenolic compounds as mixtures in preventing human LDL oxidation may reflect that nutritional advantages are found in the consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables in preventing LDL oxidation and perhaps a host of cardiovascular diseases.