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Racial disparities in hypertension prevalence, awareness, and management.
Arch Intern Med. 2005 Oct 10; 165(18):2098-104.AI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Effectively reducing cardiovascular disease disparities requires identifying and reducing disparities in risk factors. Improved understanding of hypertension disparities is critical.

METHODS

Cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative samples of black and white adults 20 years and older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 (white, n = 4624; black, n = 1837) and NHANES III conducted in 1988-1994 (white, n = 7121; black, n = 4709). We examined differences in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and blood pressure (BP) control among both treated and prevalent cases across the 2 periods.

RESULTS

Hypertension prevalence increased significantly from 35.8% to 41.4% among blacks and from 24.3% to 28.1% among whites and remains significantly higher among blacks. Awareness is higher among blacks (77.7% vs 70.4%; P<.001), as is treatment (68.2% vs 60.4%; P<.001). These results are driven by higher rates in black women. Blood pressure control rates among those treated have increased in both races, primarily as a result of increased BP control in black and white men (27.3% and 44.7%, respectively; P<or=.03). Despite the improved BP control rates, disparity in BP control among treated cases increased, with 59.7% of treated whites and 48.9% of treated blacks now reaching BP goal (P<.001). Racial differences in BP control rates among those treated cannot be explained by nonpharmacologic management or health insurance, but educational attainment is associated with BP control.

CONCLUSION

The higher prevalence of hypertension in blacks and the growing disparity in BP control among those treated pharmacologically are causes for concern.

Authors+Show Affiliations

US Outcomes Research-Population Studies, Pfizer Global Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY 10017, USA. robin.hertz@pfizer.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16216999

Citation

Hertz, Robin P., et al. "Racial Disparities in Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, and Management." Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 165, no. 18, 2005, pp. 2098-104.
Hertz RP, Unger AN, Cornell JA, et al. Racial disparities in hypertension prevalence, awareness, and management. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(18):2098-104.
Hertz, R. P., Unger, A. N., Cornell, J. A., & Saunders, E. (2005). Racial disparities in hypertension prevalence, awareness, and management. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165(18), 2098-104.
Hertz RP, et al. Racial Disparities in Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, and Management. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Oct 10;165(18):2098-104. PubMed PMID: 16216999.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Racial disparities in hypertension prevalence, awareness, and management. AU - Hertz,Robin P, AU - Unger,Alan N, AU - Cornell,Jeffrey A, AU - Saunders,Elijah, PY - 2005/10/12/pubmed PY - 2005/11/15/medline PY - 2005/10/12/entrez SP - 2098 EP - 104 JF - Archives of internal medicine JO - Arch Intern Med VL - 165 IS - 18 N2 - BACKGROUND: Effectively reducing cardiovascular disease disparities requires identifying and reducing disparities in risk factors. Improved understanding of hypertension disparities is critical. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative samples of black and white adults 20 years and older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 (white, n = 4624; black, n = 1837) and NHANES III conducted in 1988-1994 (white, n = 7121; black, n = 4709). We examined differences in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and blood pressure (BP) control among both treated and prevalent cases across the 2 periods. RESULTS: Hypertension prevalence increased significantly from 35.8% to 41.4% among blacks and from 24.3% to 28.1% among whites and remains significantly higher among blacks. Awareness is higher among blacks (77.7% vs 70.4%; P<.001), as is treatment (68.2% vs 60.4%; P<.001). These results are driven by higher rates in black women. Blood pressure control rates among those treated have increased in both races, primarily as a result of increased BP control in black and white men (27.3% and 44.7%, respectively; P<or=.03). Despite the improved BP control rates, disparity in BP control among treated cases increased, with 59.7% of treated whites and 48.9% of treated blacks now reaching BP goal (P<.001). Racial differences in BP control rates among those treated cannot be explained by nonpharmacologic management or health insurance, but educational attainment is associated with BP control. CONCLUSION: The higher prevalence of hypertension in blacks and the growing disparity in BP control among those treated pharmacologically are causes for concern. SN - 0003-9926 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16216999/Racial_disparities_in_hypertension_prevalence_awareness_and_management_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/10.1001/archinte.165.18.2098 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -