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Human duodenal enteroendocrine cells: source of both incretin peptides, GLP-1 and GIP.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Mar; 290(3):E550-9.AJ

Abstract

Among the products of enteroendocrine cells are the incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, secreted by L cells) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, secreted by K cells). These are key modulators of insulin secretion, glucose homeostasis, and gastric emptying. Because of the rapid early rise of GLP-1 in plasma after oral glucose, we wished to definitively establish the absence or presence of L cells, as well as the relative distribution of the incretin cell types in human duodenum. We confirmed the presence of proglucagon and pro-GIP genes, their products, and glucosensory molecules by tissue immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR of laser-captured, single duodenal cells. We also assayed plasma glucose, incretin, and insulin levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes for 120 min after they ingested 75 g of glucose. Subjects with normal glucose tolerance (n=14) had as many L cells (15+/-1), expressed per 1,000 gut epithelial cells, as K cells (13+/-1), with some containing both hormones (L/K cells, 5+/-1). In type 2 diabetes, the number of L and L/K cells was increased (26+/-2; P<0.001 and 9+/-1; P < 0.001, respectively). Both L and K cells contained glucokinase and glucose transporter-1, -2, and -3. Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects had increased plasma GLP-1 levels between 20 and 80 min, concurrently with rising plasma insulin levels. Significant coexpression of the main incretin peptides occurs in human duodenum. L and K cells are present in equal numbers. New onset type 2 diabetes is associated with a shift to the L phenotype.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Diabetes Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16219666

Citation

Theodorakis, Michael J., et al. "Human Duodenal Enteroendocrine Cells: Source of Both Incretin Peptides, GLP-1 and GIP." American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 290, no. 3, 2006, pp. E550-9.
Theodorakis MJ, Carlson O, Michopoulos S, et al. Human duodenal enteroendocrine cells: source of both incretin peptides, GLP-1 and GIP. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290(3):E550-9.
Theodorakis, M. J., Carlson, O., Michopoulos, S., Doyle, M. E., Juhaszova, M., Petraki, K., & Egan, J. M. (2006). Human duodenal enteroendocrine cells: source of both incretin peptides, GLP-1 and GIP. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 290(3), E550-9.
Theodorakis MJ, et al. Human Duodenal Enteroendocrine Cells: Source of Both Incretin Peptides, GLP-1 and GIP. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290(3):E550-9. PubMed PMID: 16219666.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Human duodenal enteroendocrine cells: source of both incretin peptides, GLP-1 and GIP. AU - Theodorakis,Michael J, AU - Carlson,Olga, AU - Michopoulos,Spyros, AU - Doyle,Máire E, AU - Juhaszova,Magdalena, AU - Petraki,Kalliopi, AU - Egan,Josephine M, Y1 - 2005/10/11/ PY - 2005/10/13/pubmed PY - 2006/3/24/medline PY - 2005/10/13/entrez SP - E550 EP - 9 JF - American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism JO - Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab VL - 290 IS - 3 N2 - Among the products of enteroendocrine cells are the incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, secreted by L cells) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, secreted by K cells). These are key modulators of insulin secretion, glucose homeostasis, and gastric emptying. Because of the rapid early rise of GLP-1 in plasma after oral glucose, we wished to definitively establish the absence or presence of L cells, as well as the relative distribution of the incretin cell types in human duodenum. We confirmed the presence of proglucagon and pro-GIP genes, their products, and glucosensory molecules by tissue immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR of laser-captured, single duodenal cells. We also assayed plasma glucose, incretin, and insulin levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes for 120 min after they ingested 75 g of glucose. Subjects with normal glucose tolerance (n=14) had as many L cells (15+/-1), expressed per 1,000 gut epithelial cells, as K cells (13+/-1), with some containing both hormones (L/K cells, 5+/-1). In type 2 diabetes, the number of L and L/K cells was increased (26+/-2; P<0.001 and 9+/-1; P < 0.001, respectively). Both L and K cells contained glucokinase and glucose transporter-1, -2, and -3. Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects had increased plasma GLP-1 levels between 20 and 80 min, concurrently with rising plasma insulin levels. Significant coexpression of the main incretin peptides occurs in human duodenum. L and K cells are present in equal numbers. New onset type 2 diabetes is associated with a shift to the L phenotype. SN - 0193-1849 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16219666/Human_duodenal_enteroendocrine_cells:_source_of_both_incretin_peptides_GLP_1_and_GIP_ L2 - https://journals.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00326.2004?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -