Overlapping epidemiologies of hepatitis A and typhoid fever: the needs of the traveler.J Travel Med. 2005 Apr; 12 Suppl 1:S12-21.JT
Hepatitis A and typhoid fever are endemic infectious diseases in many parts of the world. They share a common, simple mode of transmission--the fecal--oral route-associated with poor hygiene. The low endemicity of both diseases in developed countries, and the rise in travel to exotic destinations for business and leisure, mean that increasing numbers of travelers are being exposed to infection. Effective, established vaccines are available against both diseases, and recently new formulations combining both vaccines in one injection have been licensed. We review the present epidemiologic situation for both diseases, to determine the necessity to routinely vaccinate travelers against both diseases.