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Venous thromboembolic complications following air travel: what's the quantitative risk? A literature review.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2006 Feb; 31(2):187-99.EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To quantify the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following air travel and assess methods of prevention.

DESIGN

Review of literature.

METHODS

We reviewed Pubmed, Medline, Embase and Cochrane Databases for studies that have assessed the risk of VTE associated with air travel.

RESULTS

There is an association of VTE with air travel with pooled odds ratio of 1.59 (confidence interval 1.04-2.43) from three case control studies and relative risk of 2.93 (confidence interval 1.5-5.58) from two controlled cohort studies. The incidence of symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) is extremely low but there is substantial increase when the distance travelled is more than 5,000 miles (1.5 PE per million passengers) or time of flight is more than 8h duration (2.57 PE per million passengers). The quantitative risk of lower limb venous thrombosis in high-risk subjects is 5% per flight and 1.6% per flight for low risk subjects following long haul flights. All six randomised trials to test the below knee compression stockings with ankle pressures of 14-30 mmHg have shown reduction in lower limb venous thrombosis.

CONCLUSION

VTE is more common in those with additional risk factors when the risk is about 5% per air travel for long haul flights. Class I or II below knee compression stockings are effective in the prevention of lower limb venous thrombosis.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Vascular Surgery, Burnley General Hospital, Burnley, Lancashire BB10 2PQ, UK.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16230037

Citation

Aryal, K R., and H Al-Khaffaf. "Venous Thromboembolic Complications Following Air Travel: What's the Quantitative Risk? a Literature Review." European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery : the Official Journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery, vol. 31, no. 2, 2006, pp. 187-99.
Aryal KR, Al-Khaffaf H. Venous thromboembolic complications following air travel: what's the quantitative risk? A literature review. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2006;31(2):187-99.
Aryal, K. R., & Al-Khaffaf, H. (2006). Venous thromboembolic complications following air travel: what's the quantitative risk? A literature review. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery : the Official Journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery, 31(2), 187-99.
Aryal KR, Al-Khaffaf H. Venous Thromboembolic Complications Following Air Travel: What's the Quantitative Risk? a Literature Review. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2006;31(2):187-99. PubMed PMID: 16230037.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Venous thromboembolic complications following air travel: what's the quantitative risk? A literature review. AU - Aryal,K R, AU - Al-Khaffaf,H, Y1 - 2005/10/17/ PY - 2005/03/26/received PY - 2005/08/18/accepted PY - 2005/10/19/pubmed PY - 2006/2/28/medline PY - 2005/10/19/entrez SP - 187 EP - 99 JF - European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery JO - Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg VL - 31 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To quantify the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following air travel and assess methods of prevention. DESIGN: Review of literature. METHODS: We reviewed Pubmed, Medline, Embase and Cochrane Databases for studies that have assessed the risk of VTE associated with air travel. RESULTS: There is an association of VTE with air travel with pooled odds ratio of 1.59 (confidence interval 1.04-2.43) from three case control studies and relative risk of 2.93 (confidence interval 1.5-5.58) from two controlled cohort studies. The incidence of symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) is extremely low but there is substantial increase when the distance travelled is more than 5,000 miles (1.5 PE per million passengers) or time of flight is more than 8h duration (2.57 PE per million passengers). The quantitative risk of lower limb venous thrombosis in high-risk subjects is 5% per flight and 1.6% per flight for low risk subjects following long haul flights. All six randomised trials to test the below knee compression stockings with ankle pressures of 14-30 mmHg have shown reduction in lower limb venous thrombosis. CONCLUSION: VTE is more common in those with additional risk factors when the risk is about 5% per air travel for long haul flights. Class I or II below knee compression stockings are effective in the prevention of lower limb venous thrombosis. SN - 1078-5884 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16230037/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1078-5884(05)00541-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -