N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide inhibits invasion, suppresses osteoclastogenesis, and potentiates apoptosis through down-regulation of I(kappa)B(alpha) kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated gene products.Cancer Res. 2005 Oct 15; 65(20):9555-65.CR
N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide [4-HPR], a synthetic retinoid, has been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastasis by a mechanism that is not fully understood. Because the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has also been shown to regulate proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells, we postulated that 4-HPR modulates the activity of NF-kappaB. To test this postulate, we examined the effect of this retinoid on NF-kappaB and NF-kappaB-regulated gene products. We found that 4-HPR potentiated the apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and chemotherapeutic agents, suppressed TNF-induced invasion, and inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, all of which are known to require NF-kappaB activation. We found that 4-HPR suppressed both inducible and constitutive NF-kappaB activation without interfering with the direct DNA binding of NF-kappaB. 4-HPR was found to be synergistic with Velcade, a proteasome inhibitor. Further studies showed that 4-HPR blocked the phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha through the inhibition of activation of IkappaBalpha kinase (IKK), and this led to suppression of the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65. 4-HPR also inhibited TNF-induced Akt activation linked with IKK activation. NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression was also suppressed by 4-HPR, as was NF-kappaB reporter activity induced by TNFR1, TRADD, TRAF2, NIK, and IKK but not that induced by p65 transfection. The expression of NF-kappaB-regulated gene products involved in antiapoptosis (IAP1, Bfl-1/A1, Bcl-2, cFLIP, and TRAF1), proliferation (cyclin D1 and c-Myc), and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclooxygenase-2, and matrix metalloproteinase-9) were also down-regulated by 4-HPR. This correlated with potentiation of apoptosis induced by TNF and chemotherapeutic agents.