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Fat food for a bad mood. Could we treat and prevent depression in Type 2 diabetes by means of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids? A review of the evidence.

Abstract

AIMS

Evidence strongly suggests that depression is a common complication of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is considerable room to improve the effectiveness of pharmacological antidepressant agents, as in only 50-60% of the depressed subjects with diabetes does pharmacotherapy lead to remission of depression. The aim of the present paper was to review whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 family could be used for the prevention and treatment of depression in Type 2 diabetes.

METHODS

MEDLINE database and published reference lists were used to identify studies that examined the associations between omega-3 PUFA and depression. To examine potential side-effects, such as on glycaemic control, studies regarding the use of omega-3 supplements in Type 2 diabetes were also reviewed.

RESULTS

Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that a high intake of omega-3 PUFA protects against the development of depression. There is also some evidence that a low intake of omega-3 is associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes, but the results are less conclusive. Results from randomized controlled trials in non-diabetic subjects with major depression show that eicosapentaenoic acid is an effective adjunct treatment of depression in diabetes, while docosahexanoic acid is not. Moreover, consumption of omega-3 PUFA reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and may therefore indirectly decrease depression in Type 2 diabetes, via the reduction of cardiovascular complications.

CONCLUSIONS

Supplementation with omega-3 PUFA, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid, may be a safe and helpful tool to reduce the incidence of depression and to treat depression in Type 2 diabetes. Further studies are now justified to test these hypotheses in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Department of Medical Psychology, EMGO Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. f.pouwer@vumc.nl

    , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Depressive Disorder
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16241908

    Citation

    Pouwer, F, et al. "Fat Food for a Bad Mood. Could We Treat and Prevent Depression in Type 2 Diabetes By Means of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids? a Review of the Evidence." Diabetic Medicine : a Journal of the British Diabetic Association, vol. 22, no. 11, 2005, pp. 1465-75.
    Pouwer F, Nijpels G, Beekman AT, et al. Fat food for a bad mood. Could we treat and prevent depression in Type 2 diabetes by means of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids? A review of the evidence. Diabet Med. 2005;22(11):1465-75.
    Pouwer, F., Nijpels, G., Beekman, A. T., Dekker, J. M., van Dam, R. M., Heine, R. J., & Snoek, F. J. (2005). Fat food for a bad mood. Could we treat and prevent depression in Type 2 diabetes by means of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids? A review of the evidence. Diabetic Medicine : a Journal of the British Diabetic Association, 22(11), pp. 1465-75.
    Pouwer F, et al. Fat Food for a Bad Mood. Could We Treat and Prevent Depression in Type 2 Diabetes By Means of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids? a Review of the Evidence. Diabet Med. 2005;22(11):1465-75. PubMed PMID: 16241908.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Fat food for a bad mood. Could we treat and prevent depression in Type 2 diabetes by means of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids? A review of the evidence. AU - Pouwer,F, AU - Nijpels,G, AU - Beekman,A T, AU - Dekker,J M, AU - van Dam,R M, AU - Heine,R J, AU - Snoek,F J, PY - 2005/10/26/pubmed PY - 2006/2/10/medline PY - 2005/10/26/entrez SP - 1465 EP - 75 JF - Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association JO - Diabet. Med. VL - 22 IS - 11 N2 - AIMS: Evidence strongly suggests that depression is a common complication of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is considerable room to improve the effectiveness of pharmacological antidepressant agents, as in only 50-60% of the depressed subjects with diabetes does pharmacotherapy lead to remission of depression. The aim of the present paper was to review whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 family could be used for the prevention and treatment of depression in Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: MEDLINE database and published reference lists were used to identify studies that examined the associations between omega-3 PUFA and depression. To examine potential side-effects, such as on glycaemic control, studies regarding the use of omega-3 supplements in Type 2 diabetes were also reviewed. RESULTS: Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that a high intake of omega-3 PUFA protects against the development of depression. There is also some evidence that a low intake of omega-3 is associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes, but the results are less conclusive. Results from randomized controlled trials in non-diabetic subjects with major depression show that eicosapentaenoic acid is an effective adjunct treatment of depression in diabetes, while docosahexanoic acid is not. Moreover, consumption of omega-3 PUFA reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and may therefore indirectly decrease depression in Type 2 diabetes, via the reduction of cardiovascular complications. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with omega-3 PUFA, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid, may be a safe and helpful tool to reduce the incidence of depression and to treat depression in Type 2 diabetes. Further studies are now justified to test these hypotheses in patients with Type 2 diabetes. SN - 0742-3071 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16241908/Fat_food_for_a_bad_mood__Could_we_treat_and_prevent_depression_in_Type_2_diabetes_by_means_of_omega_3_polyunsaturated_fatty_acids_A_review_of_the_evidence_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2005.01661.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -