A study of variable hydration states in topotecan hydrochloride.J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006 Mar 18; 40(5):1080-8.JP
Topotecan hydrochloride, a pharmaceutical compound developed as a treatment for cancer, exhibits variable hydration states in a crystalline solid form chosen for manufacturing. This variability requires additional controls for successful development, and presents a characterization and detection challenge for analytical methods. In this study, overall water content was determined by Karl Fischer titration and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on topotecan HCl equilibrated at different relative humidity levels. These results, when combined with information obtained from dynamic water vapor sorption and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), indicate that this form of topotecan HCl contains 3 mol of water integral to the crystalline structure and up to two additional moles of water depending on the relative humidity. Powder X-ray diffraction experiments did not detect significant differences in topotecan HCl samples equilibrated at trihydrate and pentahydrate states, and showed that the crystal lattice dimensions are not affected unless the form is dried below the trihydrate state. This behavior is typical of crystal structures with channels that can accommodate additional loosely bound water. To study the role of the loosely bound water in the crystal structure in more detail, solid-state (13)C and (15)N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to examine the differences between the hydration states. Both the trihydrate and pentahydrate states yielded similar solid-state NMR spectra, consistent with the lack of change in the crystal lattice. However, minor but readily detectable differences in the (13)C spectra are observed with changes in water content. Interpretation of this data suggests that the loosely bound channel water is hydrogen-bonding to specific portions of the topotecan parent molecule. Topotecan HCl trihydrate was hydrated with D(2)O vapor to confirm the nature and location of the channel water using (13)C and (2)H solid-state NMR. Despite the detectable association of the channel water with hydrogen bonding sites on the topotecan molecule, (2)H quadrupolar echo experiments indicate that the channel water is highly mobile at room temperature and at -60 degrees C.