Study of anticancer activities of muscadine grape phenolics in vitro.J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Nov 02; 53(22):8804-12.JA
Muscadine grapes have unique aroma and flavor characteristics. Although a few studies reported high polyphenols content of muscadine grapes, little research has been conducted to evaluate the phenolic compounds bioactivities in any muscadine grape cultivar. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenolic compounds in muscadine grapes on cancer cell viability and apoptosis. Four cultivars of muscadine (Carlos, Ison, Noble, and Supreme) were assessed in this study. Phenolic compounds were extracted from muscadine skins and further separated into phenolic acids, tannins, flavonols, and anthocyanins using HLB cartridge and LH20 column. Some individual phenolic acids and flavonoids were identified by HPLC. Anthocyanin fractions were more than 90% pure. The effect of different fractions on the viability and apoptosis of two colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and Caco-2) was evaluated. A 50% inhibition of cancer cell population growth for the two cell lines was observed at concentrations of 1-7 mg/mL for crude extracts. The phenolic acid fractions showed a 50% inhibition at the level of 0.5-3 mg/mL. The greatest inhibitory activity was found in the anthocyanin fraction, with a 50% inhibition at concentrations of approximately 200 microg/mL in HT-29 and 100-300 microg/mL in Caco-2. Anthocyanin fractions also resulted in 2-4 times increase in DNA fragmentation, indicating the induction of apoptosis. These findings suggest that polyphenols from muscadine grapes may have anticancer properties.