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Idiopathic bilateral optic atrophy in the rhesus macaque.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Nov; 46(11):3943-56.IO

Abstract

PURPOSE

To document the existence of idiopathic bilateral optic atrophy (BOA) in rhesus macaque monkeys and to characterize the structural and functional consequences of this condition.

METHODS

In vivo assessment of retinal and optic nerve structure included fundus biomicroscopy and stereophotography. Functional analyses included transient pattern-reversal electroretinography (PERG) and full-field flash ERG, with both white flashes while dark adapted and red flashes on a blue background used to assess the photopic negative response (PhNR). Also measured were visual evoked cortical potentials (VEPs) and multifocal (mf)ERGs, with both a standard fast and slowed (7F) stimulation sequence. Post mortem histologic evaluation was performed on a subset of five animals with BOA and compared with data from 22 healthy normal animals. Blood tests, including vitamin E, B(12), folate, lead, and complete blood cell count with differential were obtained on the four animals that remained alive.

RESULTS

Animals with BOA showed temporal pallor of the optic nerve head and thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) between the temporal vascular arcades (i.e., of the papillomacular bundle). Severity of optic atrophy and RNFL loss varied between animals from mild to severe, but was similar in the two eyes of each animal. Functional changes included greater loss of the PERG N95, compared with the P50 component and substantial reduction of mfERG high-frequency components. The mfERG low-frequency components were slightly larger than normal. None of the full-field flash ERG amplitudes (a-wave, b-wave, oscillatory potentials, or PhNR) was significantly different from normal. There were no consistent abnormalities found in the results of any blood test. Histologic findings included axonal loss and gliosis limited to the temporal optic nerve, reduction of nuclei within the retinal ganglion cell layer, and thinning of the temporal retinal RNFL.

CONCLUSIONS

The existence of BOA in nonhuman primates warrants caution on the part of investigators who use these animals in experimental models of ophthalmic disease.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Discoveries in Sight, Devers Eye Institute, Legacy Health System, Portland, OR 97232, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16249467

Citation

Fortune, Brad, et al. "Idiopathic Bilateral Optic Atrophy in the Rhesus Macaque." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 46, no. 11, 2005, pp. 3943-56.
Fortune B, Wang L, Bui BV, et al. Idiopathic bilateral optic atrophy in the rhesus macaque. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46(11):3943-56.
Fortune, B., Wang, L., Bui, B. V., Burgoyne, C. F., & Cioffi, G. A. (2005). Idiopathic bilateral optic atrophy in the rhesus macaque. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 46(11), 3943-56.
Fortune B, et al. Idiopathic Bilateral Optic Atrophy in the Rhesus Macaque. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46(11):3943-56. PubMed PMID: 16249467.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Idiopathic bilateral optic atrophy in the rhesus macaque. AU - Fortune,Brad, AU - Wang,Lin, AU - Bui,Bang V, AU - Burgoyne,Claude F, AU - Cioffi,George A, PY - 2005/10/27/pubmed PY - 2005/12/22/medline PY - 2005/10/27/entrez SP - 3943 EP - 56 JF - Investigative ophthalmology & visual science JO - Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci VL - 46 IS - 11 N2 - PURPOSE: To document the existence of idiopathic bilateral optic atrophy (BOA) in rhesus macaque monkeys and to characterize the structural and functional consequences of this condition. METHODS: In vivo assessment of retinal and optic nerve structure included fundus biomicroscopy and stereophotography. Functional analyses included transient pattern-reversal electroretinography (PERG) and full-field flash ERG, with both white flashes while dark adapted and red flashes on a blue background used to assess the photopic negative response (PhNR). Also measured were visual evoked cortical potentials (VEPs) and multifocal (mf)ERGs, with both a standard fast and slowed (7F) stimulation sequence. Post mortem histologic evaluation was performed on a subset of five animals with BOA and compared with data from 22 healthy normal animals. Blood tests, including vitamin E, B(12), folate, lead, and complete blood cell count with differential were obtained on the four animals that remained alive. RESULTS: Animals with BOA showed temporal pallor of the optic nerve head and thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) between the temporal vascular arcades (i.e., of the papillomacular bundle). Severity of optic atrophy and RNFL loss varied between animals from mild to severe, but was similar in the two eyes of each animal. Functional changes included greater loss of the PERG N95, compared with the P50 component and substantial reduction of mfERG high-frequency components. The mfERG low-frequency components were slightly larger than normal. None of the full-field flash ERG amplitudes (a-wave, b-wave, oscillatory potentials, or PhNR) was significantly different from normal. There were no consistent abnormalities found in the results of any blood test. Histologic findings included axonal loss and gliosis limited to the temporal optic nerve, reduction of nuclei within the retinal ganglion cell layer, and thinning of the temporal retinal RNFL. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of BOA in nonhuman primates warrants caution on the part of investigators who use these animals in experimental models of ophthalmic disease. SN - 0146-0404 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16249467/Idiopathic_bilateral_optic_atrophy_in_the_rhesus_macaque_ L2 - https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1167/iovs.04-1160 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -